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Welding Terms and Definitions Dictionary

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 -  Some information courtesy of American Welding Society, Lincoln Electric and Miller Welds -
Rental Equipment
 
Intermetallic
 - 

A term used to describe a compound material composed of two or more metals or of a metal and a nonmetal.

Across the arc wire feeders
 -  Also referred to as voltage-sensing wire feeders. The wire feeder is powered by the welding cable instead of a control cable. This configuration provides the benefit of fewer cables running back to the power source. Voltage control at the point of use is not possible without the addition of a control cable however, technologies such as ArcReach and CrossLinc now provided remote control capability via the welding cable.
Actual throat
 -  The shortest distance from the root of a fillet weld to its face.
All-weld-metal test specimen
 -  A test specimen with the reduced section composed wholly of weld metal
Allmand Maxi-Power MP125 (Canada) Diesel Engine Generator Isuzu 4HK1X Tier 3
 -  Prime Power - 125 kVA (100 kW) Standby Power - 137 kVA (110 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Isuzu 4HK1X, 4 cylinder, 152 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 3
Sound Level @ 23 ft - NO LOAD - <66 dBA
Allmand Maxi-Power MP150 Diesel Engine Generator Isuzu 6HK1X Tier 3 Flex
 -  Prime Power - 150 kVA (120 kW) Standby Power - 165 kVA (132 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Isuzu 6HK1X, 4 cylinder, 190 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 3 Flex
Sound Level @ 23 ft - NO LOAD - <68 dBA
Allmand Maxi-Power MP150 Diesel Engine Generator John Deere 6068HFG05 Turbo Tier 4 Final
 -  Prime Power - 150 kVA (120 kW) Standby Power - 165 kVA (132 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
John Deere 6068HFG05 Turbo, 6 cylinder, 6.8L, 235 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 4 Final
Sound Level @ 23 ft - FULL LOAD - 66 dBA
Allmand Maxi-Power MP25 Diesel Engine Generator Isuzu 4LE2T Turbo
 -  Prime Power - 25 kVA (20 kW) Standby Power - 27.5 kVA (20 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Isuzu 4LE2T Turbo, 2.2L, 4 cylinder, 33 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 4 Final
Acceptable Fuel Types (Engine Only) - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)
Sound Level @ 23 ft - NO LOAD - 62 dBA, FULL LOAD - 63 dBA
USA DOT Compliant, Not CSA Listed, Transport Canada Compliant
Allmand Maxi-Power MP40 Diesel Engine Generator Kubota V3300 Interim Tier 4
 -  Prime Power - 38 kVA (30.4 kW) Standby Power - 39 kVA (31.2 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Kubota V3300, 4 cylinder, 47 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Interim Tier 4
Sound Level @ 23 ft - NO LOAD - <61 dBA
Allmand Maxi-Power MP45 Diesel Engine Generator Isuzu 4LE2X Turbo Tier 4 Final
 -  Prime Power - 45 kVA (36 kW) Standby Power - 48.5 kVA (39 kW), Voltage - 120/127/139/240/254/277/1 Phase, 208/220/240/416/440/480/3 Phase
Isuzu 4LE2X Turbo with Air Cooler, 2.2L, 4 cylinder, 57.7 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 4 Final
Acceptable Fuel Types (Engine Only) - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)
Sound Level @ 23 ft - NO LOAD - 61 dBA, FULL LOAD - 64 dBA
USA DOT Compliant, Not CSA Listed, Transport Canada Compliant
Allmand Maxi-Power MP65 Diesel Engine Generator Isuzu 4JJ1X Tier 4 Final
 -  Prime Power - 63 kVA (50 kW) Standby Power - 69 kVA (55 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Isuzu 4JJ1X, 2.2L, 4 cylinder, 86.5 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 4 Final
Allmand Maxi-Power MP65-8B1 Diesel Engine Generator Isuzu 4JJ1X Tier 3 Flex
 -  Prime Power - 63 kVA (50 kW) Standby Power - 67 kVA (53.6 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Isuzu 4JJ1X, 2.2L, 4 cylinder, 98 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 4 Final
Allmand Maxi-Power MP65-8C1 Diesel Engine Generator Kubota V3300 Interim Tier 4
 -  Prime Power - 63 kVA (50 kW) Standby Power - 67 kVA (53.6 kW), Voltage - 120/240/277/1 Phase, 208/240/416/480/3 Phase
Kubota V3300, 4 cylinder, 76 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Interim Tier 4
Alloy
 -  A mixture of metallic elements combined to provide specific properties such as greater resistance to corrosion or improved strength. For example, brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.
Alternating Current (AC)
 -  An electric current which periodically reverses direction. It is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences.
Amperage
 -  The measurement of the amount of electricity flowing past a given point in a conductor per second. Current is another name for amperage.
Arc
 -  The physical gap between the end of the electrode and the base metal. The physical gap causes heat due to resistance of current flow and arc rays.
Arc blow
 -  The deflection of an electric arc from its normal path because of magnetic forces.
Arc force
 -  Arc force prevents the electrode from sticking during welding. Arc force is a temporary increase of the output current during welding when the arc is too short. This feature supports production with consistently excellent arc performance. It also enhances simple position welding making the job easier. In order to produce an outstanding weld performance on a variety of electrodes (rutile, basic or cellulose), the arc force can be finely adjusted with a simple knob. To have a smooth arc with less spatter, set the knob to minimum (rutile, basic). For a more crisp arc, with more penetration, set it to maximum.
Arc seam weld
 -  A seam weld made by an arc welding process.
Arc spot weld
 -  A spot weld made by an arc welding process.
Arc time
 -  The time during which an arc is maintained in making an arc weld.
Arc voltage
 -  The voltage across the welding arc.
Arc Welding
 -  Welding processes which use heat from the resistance of current flow and arc rays to produce coalescence of metals. Can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, consumable or non-consumable electrodes, with or without the application of pressure.
Arc welding electrode
 -  A component of the welding circuit through which current is conducted between the electrode holder and the arc.
Arc welding gun
 -  In semi-automatic, machine and automatic welding, a manipulating device to transfer current and guide the electrode into the arc. It may include provisions for shielding and arc initiation.
As-welded
 -  The condition of weld metal, welded joints, and weldments after welding but prior to any subsequent thermal, mechanical, or chemical treatments.
Asynchronous welder generator
 -  An asynchronous generator is an alternator that utilizes an air-gap rotating magnetic-field between a stator and a rotor to interact with an induced current in a rotor winding. An asynchronous generator requires no maintenance since there is no collector ring, brush, or rotor excitation winding. It is sometimes called an induction generator. General efficiency is higher than that of a synchronous generator with the same capacity and the same speed. Red-D-Arc's GX200 DC CC gas engine welder employs an asynchronous generator to produce welding current.
Autogenous weld
 -  A fusion weld made without the addition of filler metal.
Automatic welding
 -  Welding with equipment which performs the welding operation without adjustment of the controls by a welding operator. The equipment may of may not perform the loading and unloading of the work. See machine welding.
Automatic Welding
 -  Uses equipment that welds without the constant adjusting of controls by the welder or operator. Equipment controls joint alignment by using an automatic sensing device.
Axis of a weld
 -  A line through the length of a weld, perpendicular to and at the geometric center of its cross section.
Back gouging
 -  The removal of weld metal and base metal from the other side of a partially welded joint to assure complete penetration upon subsequent welding from that side.
Backhand welding
 -  A welding technique in which the welding torch or gun is directed opposite to the progress of welding. Sometimes referred to as the “pull gun technique” in GMAW and FCAW.
Backing
 -  A material (base metal, weld metal, carbon, or granular material) placed at the root of a weld joint for the purpose of supporting molten weld metal.
Backing pass
 -  A pass made to deposit a baking weld.
Backing ring
 -  Backing in the form of a ring, generally used in the welding of piping.
Backing strip
 -  Backing in the form of a strip.
Backstep sequence
 -  A longitudinal sequence in which the weld bead increments are deposited in the direction opposite to the progress of welding the joint. See block sequence, cascade sequence,continuous sequence, joint building sequence, and longitudinal sequence.
Bare electrode
 -  A filler metal electrode consisting of a single metal or alloy that has been produced into a wire, strip, or bar form and that has had no coating or covering applied to it other than that which was incidental to its manufacture or preservation.
Bare metal arc welding (BMAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an electric arc between a bare or lightly coated metal electrode and the work. Neither shielding nor pressure is used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode. (This process is now obsolete in industrial applications).
Base metal (material)
 -  The metal (material) to be welded, brazed, soldered, or cut.
Base metal test specimen
 -  A test specimen composed wholly of base-metal.
Bend Test
 -  A destructive testing method where the weld specimen is bent to a specified bend radius to evaluate the ductility and soundness of the weld. See Weld Quality Assurance
Bevel
 -  An angular type of edge preparation.
Bevel angle
 -  The angle formed between the prepared edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member.
Bison 3205-12” 3-Jaw, Self-Centering Scroll Chuck, Plain Back
 -  Type: 3205-12” Code No: 7-800-1200 Part Number: 353205070500 Diameter: 12" Through-hole: 4.06"
3 - scroll chuck, 2 - 3-jaw/cast iron body, 0 - plain back mount, 5 - 2-piece jaws, 12 - size diameter
Note: Can be bolted to an adapter plate for mounting on any 4-slot positioner table
Blind joint
 -  A joint, no portion of which is visible.
Block sequence
 -  A combined longitudinal and buildup sequence for a continuous multiple pass weld in which separated lengths are completely or partially built up in cross section before intervening lengths are deposited.
Boxing
 -  The continuation of a fillet weld around a corner of a member as an extension of the principal weld.
Break test
 -  A destructive testing method where a fillet weld sample is broken and the broken surfaces examined for discontinuities. See Weld Quality Assurance
Burn-thru
 -  A term erroneously used to denote excessive melt-thru or a hole.
Burn-thru weld
 -  A term erroneously used to denote a seam weld or spot weld.
Butt joint
 -  A joint between two members aligned approximately in the same plane.
Butt weld
 -  An erroneous term for a weld in a butt joint.
Buttering
 -  A form of surfacing in which one or more layers of weld metal are deposited on the groove face of one member (for example, a high alloy weld deposit on steel base metal which is to be welded to a dissimilar base metal). The buttering provides a suitable transition weld deposit for subsequent completion of the butt weld.
Button
 -  That part of a weld, including all or part of the nugget, which tears out in the destructive testing of spot, seam, or projection welded specimens.
Carbon arc cutting (CAC)
 -  An arc cutting process in which metals are severed by melting them with the heat of an arc between a carbon electrode and the base metal.
Carbon arc welding (CAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a carbon electrode and the work. No shielding is used. Pressure and filler metal may or may not be used.
Carbon electrode
 -  A non-filler material electrode used in arc welding or cutting, consisting of a carbon or graphite rod, which may be coated with copper or other coatings.
Cascade sequence
 -  A combined longitudinal and buildup sequence during which weld beads are deposited in overlapping layers.
Center of gravity (weld positioning)
 -  The point at which the weldment balances on all axes equally. As the distance increases from the device, more torque is applied to the positioner. The center of gravity changes as the welder adds material and parts to the positioner.
Chain intermittent fillet welding
 -  Two lines of intermittent fillet welds on a joint in which the fillet weld increments on one side are approximately opposite to those on the other side of the joint.
Clad metal
 -  A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been welded together. The welding may have been accomplished by roll welding, arc welding, casting, heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.
Cladding
 -  A relatively thick layer (> 1 mm (0.04 in.)) of material applied by surfacing of the purpose of improved corrosion resistance or other properties. Cladding Systems
Coalescence
 -  The growing together or growth into one body of the materials being welded.
Coating
 -  A relatively thin layer (> 1 mm (0.04 in.)) of material applied by surfacing for the purpose of corrosion prevention, resistance to high temperature scaling, wear resistance, lubrication, or other purposes.
Cobot
 -  an apparatus and method for direct physical interaction between a person and a robotic manipulator controlled by a computer. See the BotX Welding Cobot
Coil with support
 -  A filler metal package type consisting of a continuous length of electrode in coil form wound on an internal support which is a simple cylindrical section without flanges.
Coil without support
 -  A filler metal package type consisting of a continuous length of electrode in coil form without an internal support. It is appropriately bound to maintain its shape.
Collaborative Robot
 -  A robotic system that is designed to work in tandem with a human operator. The BotX Welder is an example of a collaborative welding robot.
Complete fusion
 -  Fusion which has occurred over the entire base material surfaces intended for welding, and between all layers and passes.
Complete joint penetration
 -  Joint penetration in which the weld metal completely fills the groove and is fused to the base metal throughout its total thickness.
Composite electrode
 -  Any of a number of multicomponent filler metal electrodes in various physical forms such as stranded wires, tubes, and covered wire.
Composite joint
 -  A joint produced by welding used in conjunction with a non-welding process.
Concave fillet weld
 -  A fillet weld having a concave face.
Concave root surface
 -  A root surface which is concave.
Concavity
 -  The maximum distance from the face of a concave fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the toes.
Concurrent heating
 -  The application of supplemental heat to a structure during a welding or cutting operation.
Constant Current (CC) Welding Machine
 -  These welding machines have limited maximum short circuit current. They have a negative volt-amp curve and are often referred to as "droopers."
Constant speed wire feeders
 -  A constant speed wire feeder is used only with a constant voltage (CV) power source. This arrangement requires an extra control cord between the wire feeder and the power source but that allows operators to control both voltage and wire feed speed (amperage) at the feeder, a big benefit when working remotely. Further, voltage and amperage values remain constant unless manually adjusted, and both can be adjusted independently of each other. When welding procedures specify wire feed speed and voltage (instead of amps and volts), a constant speed feeder may be your best choice. When you set the controls for a wire feed speed of 250 inches per minute, that's what the system delivers. Wire feed speed does not vary like it does with a voltage sensing system. Both VS and RC feeders have digital meters, typically an option, make setting e xact parameters easier. The meters display wire feed speed or volts (one at a time) or they can be set to display amps or wire feed speed (one at a time).
Constant Voltage (CV), Constant Potential (CP) Welding Machine
 -  This type of welding machine output maintains a relatively stable, consistent voltage regardless of the amperage output. It results in a relatively flat volt-amp curve.
Consumable guide electro slag welding
 -  A method of electroslag welding in which filler metal is supplied by an electrode and its guiding member.
Consumable insert
 -  Preplaced filler metal which is completely fused into the root of the joint and becomes part of the weld.
Contact tube
 -  A device which transfers current to a continuous electrode.
Continuous sequence
 -  A longitudinal sequence in which each pass is made continuously from one end of the joint to the other.
Continuous weld
 -  A weld extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other. Where the joint is essentially circular, it extends completely around the joint.
Convex fillet weld
 -  A fillet weld having a convex face.
Convex root surface.
 -  A root surface which is convex.
Convexity
 -  The maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the toes.
Corner joint
 -  A joint between two members located approximately at right angles to each other.
Corner-flange weld
 -  A flange weld with only one member flanged at the location of welding.
Coupling hub
 -  A coupling hub that is the connecting part to be attached either to the driver shaft end or to the driven equipment shaft end of a rotating drive. See Coupling Hub Maintenance Article
Cover lens (eye protection)
 -  A round cover plate.
Cover plate (eye protection)
 -  A removable pane or colorless glass, plastic-coated glass, or plastic that covers the filter plate and protects it from weld spatter, pitting, or scratching when used in a helmet, hood or goggle.
Covered electrode
 -  A composite filler metal electrode consisting of a core of a bare electrode or metal cored electrode to which a covering sufficient to provide a slag layer on the weld metal has been applied. The covering may contain materials providing such functions as shielding from the atmosphere, deoxidation, and arc stabilization and can serve as a source of metallic additions to the weld.
Crack
 -  A fracture-type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio to length and width to opening displacement.
Crater
 -  In arc welding, a depression at the termination of a weld bead or in the molten weld pool.
Crater crack
 -  A crack in the crater of a weld bead.
Current
 -  Another name for amperage. The amount of electricity flowing past a point in a conductor every second.
CV
 -  Conventional mode for MIG welding. This general purpose MIG welding mode uses constant voltage for short arc, globular and spray transfer.
Cylinder
 -  A portable container used for transportation and storage of a compressed gas.
Defect
 -  A discontinuity or discontinuities which by nature or accumulated effect (for example, total crack length) render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. This terms designates reject ability.
Defective weld
 -  A weld containing one or more defects.
Deposited metal
 -  Filler metal that has been added during a welding operation.
Deposition efficiency (arc welding)
 -  The ratio of the weight of deposited metal to the net weight of filler metal consumed, exclusive of stubs.
Depth of fusion
 -  The distance that fusion extends into the base metal or previous pass from the surface melted during welding.
Destructive Testing (DT)
 -  A method of testing a constructed or welded piece where the piece is destroyed while being tested to the point of failure. See Weld Quality Assurance
Dig
 -  Also called Arc Control. Gives a power source variable additional amperage during low voltage (short arc length) conditions while welding. Helps avoid “sticking” stick electrodes when a short arc length is used.
Dilution
 -  The change in chemical composition of a welding filler material caused by the admixture of the base material or previously deposited weld material in the deposited weld bead. It is normally measured by the percentage or base material or previously deposited weld material in the weld bead.
Direct Current (DC)
 -  Flows in one direction and does not reverse its direction of flow as does alternating current.
Direct current electrode negative
 -  The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the work is the positive pole and the electrode is the negative pole of the welding arc.
Direct current electrode positive
 -  The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the work is the negative pole and the electrode is the positive pole of the welding arc.
Discontinuity
 -  An interruption of the typical structure of a weldment, such as a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical, metallurgical, or physical characteristics of the material or weldment. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.
Double-welded joint
 -  In arc and oxyfuel gas welding, any joint welded from both sides.
Drag angle
 -  The travel angle when the electrode is pointing backward. This angle can be used to define the position of welding guns, welding torches, high energy beams, welding rods, thermal cutting and thermal spraying guns.
Drop-thru
 -  An undesirable sagging or surface irregularity, usually encountered when brazing or welding near the solidus of the base metal caused by overheating with rapid diffusion or alloying between the filler metal and the base metal.
Drum
 -  A filler metal package type consisting of a continuous length of electrode wound or coiled within an enclosed cylindrical container.
Dual Fuel Generators
 -  Power generators which can run on 2 different fuels such as diesel or natural gas. Dual Fuel Generators can be more fuel efficient than other models and offer flexibility.
Dustless Blasting
 -  Dustless wet media blasting is an excellentalternative to sandblasting. Sandblasting can create a lot of dust which requires specialized containment measures. Dustless blasting refers to blast cleaning methods like wet media blasting which don't produce any dust cloud. Any time a surface is cleaned with any blast cleaning method, there will always be some residual material (paint, rust, dirt etc) which is stripped away. The dust referred to in dustless blasting is that which comes from the blasting media itself ie. sand. The Clearblast 150 is a good example of a dustless blasting machine.
Duty cycle
 -  The percentage of time during an arbitrary test period, usually 10 min. during which a power supply can be operated at its rated output without overloading.
Dye Penetrant Testing
 -  Using dye to detect surface defects in a weld. See Weld Quality Assurance
Eccentricity (weld positioning)
 -  The distance from the weldment center of gravity to its rotation axis in the case of an unbalanced load.
Edge flange weld
 -  A flange weld with two members flanged at the location of welding.
Edge joint
 -  A joint between the edges of two or more parallel or nearly parallel members.
Edge preparation
 -  The surface prepared on the edge of a member for welding.
Edge weld
 -  A weld in an edge point.
Effective length of weld
 -  The length of weld throughout which the correctly proportioned cross section exists. In a curved weld, it shall be measured along the axis of the weld.
Effective throat
 -  The minimum distance from the root of a weld to its face less any reinforcement.
Effective throat
 -  The minimum distance minus any reinforcement from the root of a weld to its face.
Electrode extension (GMAW, FCAW, SAW)
 -  The length of unmelted electrode extending beyond the end of the contact tube during welding.
Electrode holder
 -  A device used for mechanically holding the electrode while conducting current to it.
Electrode lead
 -  The electrical conductor between the source of arc welding current and the electrode holder.
Electroslag welding (ESW)
 -  A welding process producing coalescence of metals with molten slag which melts the filler metal and the surfaces of the work to be welded. The molten weld pool is shielded by this slag which moves along the full cross-section of the joint as welding progresses. The process is initiated by an arc which heats the slag. The arc is then extinguished and the conductive slag is maintained in a molten condition by its resistance to electric current passing between the electrode and the work.
Electroslag welding electrode
 -  A filler metal component of the welding circuit through which current is conducted between the electrode guiding member and the molten slag. Note: Bare electrodes and composite electrodes as defined under “arc welding electrode” are used for electroslag welding. A consumable guide may also be used as part of the electroslag welding electrode system.
Emissive electrode
 -  A filler metal electrode consisting of a core of a bare electrode or a composite electrode to which a very light coating has been applied to produce a stable arc.
Exhaust booth
 -  A mechanically ventilated, semi-enclosed area in which an air flow across the work area is used to remove fumes, gases, and material particles.
Face of weld
 -  The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which welding was done.
Face reinforcement
 -  Reinforcement of weld at the side of the joint from which welding was done.
Face shield (eye protection)
 -  A device positioned in front of the eyes and a portion of, or all of, the face, whose predominant function is protection of the eyes and face.
Faying surface
 -  That mating surface of a member which is in contact or in close proximity with another member to which it is to be joined.
Feed rate
 -  The rate at which material passes through a gun in a unit of times.
Ferrite number
 -  An arbitrary, standardized value designating the ferrite content of an austenitic stainless steel weld metal. It should be used in place of percent ferrite or volume percent ferrite on a direct one to one replacement basis.
Filled weld
 -  The position in which welding is performed on the upper side of an approximately horizontal plane and the face of the weld lies in an approximately vertical plane.
Filler metal
 -  The metal (material) to be added in making a welded, brazed, or soldered joint.
Fillet weld
 -  A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint or corner joint.
Fillet weld (size of weld)
 -  For equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest isoceles right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. For unequal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. Note: When one member makes an angle with the other member, greater that 105 degrees, the leg length (size) is of less significance than the effective throat which is the controlling factor for the strength of a weld.
Filter lens (eye protection)
 -  A round filter plate.
Filter plate (eye protection)
 -  An optical material which protects the eyes against excessive ultraviolet, infrared, and visible radiation.
Fines
 -  Any or all material finer than a particular mesh under consideration.
Fissure
 -  A small crack-like discontinuity with only slight separation (opening displacement) of the fracture surfaces. The prefixes macro or micro indicate relative size.
Fixed Automation
 -  Automated, electronically controlled welding system for simple, straight or circular welds.
Fixture
 -  A device designed to hold parts to be joined in proper relation to each other
Flange weld
 -  A weld made on the edges of two or more members to be joined, at least one of which is flanged.
Flange weld (size of weld)
 -  The weld metal thickness measured at the root of the weld.
Flat position
 -  The welding position used to weld from the upper side of the joint: the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.
Flaw
 -  A near synonym for discontinuity but with an undesirable connotation.
Flexible Automation
 -  Automated, robotically controlled welding system for complex shapes and applications where welding paths require torch-angle manipulation.
Flowability
 -  The ability of molten filler metal to flow or spread over a metal surface.
Flux
 -  Material used to prevent, dissolve, or facilitate removal of oxides and other undesirable surface substances.
Flux cored arc welding-electrogas
 -  A variation of the flux cored arc welding process in which molding shoes are used to confine the molten weld metal for vertical position welding. Additional shielding may or may not be obtained from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.
Flux cored electrode
 -  A composition filler metal electrode consisting of a metal tube or other hollow configuration containing ingredients to provide such functions as shielding atmosphere, deoxidation, arc stabilization and slag formation. Alloying materials may be included in the core. External shielding may or may not be used.
Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
 -  Arc welding process which uses a spooled, tubular filler metal electrode consumable enveloping flux. Shielding is obtained from the flux contained within the electrode core. Additional externally supplied shielding gas can also be used. Can work as well as stick on dirty or rusty material. Out-of-position welding, Deep penetration for welding thick sections, Increased metal deposition rate
Forehand welding
 -  A welding technique in which the welding torch or gun is directed toward the progress of welding.
Full fillet weld
 -  A filler weld whose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner member joined.
Fusion
 -  The melting together of filler metal and base metal (substrate), or of base metal only, which results in coalescence.
Fusion face
 -  A surface of the base metal which will be melted during welding.
Fusion welding
 -  Any welding process or method which uses fusion to complete the weld.
Fusion zone
 -  The area of base metal melted as determined on the cross section of a weld.
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. Some methods of this process are called MIG or CO2 welding (nonpreferred terms). See > MIG welding equipmentVideo > MIG (GMAW) welding
Gas metal arc welding short circuiting arc (GMAW-S)
 -  A variation of the gas metal arc welding process in which the consumable electrode is deposited during repeated short circuits.
Gas metal arc welding-electrogas (GMAW-EG)
 -  A variation of the gas metal arc welding process using molding shoes to confine the molten weld metal for vertical position welding.
Gas metal arc welding-pulsed arc (GMAW-P)
 -  A variation of the gas metal arc welding process in which the current is pulsed. See also pulsed power welding.
Gas shielding arc welding
 -  A general term used to describe gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and flux cored arc welding when gas shielding is employed.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a tungsten (non-consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from a gas or gas mixture. Pressure may or may not be used and filler metal may or may not be used. (This process has sometimes been called TIG welding, a nonpreferred term.)
Gas tungsten arc welding-pulsed arc (GTAW-P)
 -  A variation of the gas tungsten arc welding process in which the current is pulsed.
Globular transfer (arc welding)
 -  A type of metal transfer in which molten filler metal is transferred across the arc in large droplets.
Goat
 -  Nickname for Lincoln Electric's LT7 submerged arc tractor
Gouging
 -  The forming of a bevel or groove by material removal. Learn about the Air Carbon Arc Gouging Process
Groove
 -  An opening or channel in the surface of a part or between two components which provides space to contain a weld.
Groove angle
 -  The total included angle of the groove between parts to be joined by a groove weld.
Groove face
 -  That surface of a member included in the groove.
Groove radius
 -  The radius used to form the shape of a J- or U-groove weld joint.
Groove type
 -  The geometric configuration of a groove.
Groove weld
 -  A weld made in the groove between two members to be joined. The standard types of groove welds are double-bevel-groove weld, double-flare-bevel-groove weld, double-flare-V-groove weld, double-J-groove weld, double-U-groove weld, double-V-groove weld single-bevel-groove weld, single-flare-bevel-groove weld, single-flare-V-groove weld single-J-groove weld, single-U-groove weld, single-V-groove weld, square-groove weld
Groove weld (size of weld)
 -  The joint penetration (depth of bevel plus the root penetration when specified). The size of a groove weld and its effective throat are one and the same.
Ground Connection
 -  A safety connection from a welding machine frame to the earth. See Workpiece Connection for the difference between work connection and ground connection.
Ground Lead
 -  When referring to the connection from the welding machine to the work, see preferred term Workpiece Lead.
H&S Tool BG44 Boiler Gun
 -  Working Range: 0.875 in. ID – 5 in. OD (22.2 ID – 127 OD mm), Radial Tool Clearance: 1.312 in. (33.3 mm), Head Width: 2.625 in. (66.7 mm)
Power: Pneumatic (1.3 HP / 0.97 kW), Low-velocity (LV) 55 RPM, High-velocity (HV) 110 RPM
Electric (1.5 HP / 1.1 kW)
H&S Tool Model AFC-12 Split-Frame Clamshell, Part Number AFC12Dk-R
 -  Nominal Pipe Size 6-12 inches, Tripper – 4 inch, Extension Pad - ½, 1, & 2 inches, Tool Slide – 3-inch, Air Motor – 4800, Includes complete machine assembly with DEFENDER kit, extension pads, tool slide assembly, air motor, tool kit, Clamshell box, and operating manual.
H&S Tool Model AFC-16 Split-Frame Clamshell, Part Number AFC16Dk-R
 -  Nominal Pipe Size 8-16 inches, Tripper – 4 inch, Extension Pad - ½, 1, & 2 inches, Tool Slide – 3-inch, Air Motor – 4800, Includes complete machine assembly with DEFENDER kit, extension pads, tool slide assembly, air motor, tool kit, Clamshell box, and operating manual.
H&S Tool Model AFC-8 Split-Frame Clamshell, Part Number AFC8Dk-R
 -  Nominal Pipe Size 3-8 inches, Tripper – 4 inch, Extension Pad - ½ & 1 inches, Tool Slide – 2-inch, Air Motor – 3800, Includes complete machine assembly with DEFENDER kit, extension pads, tool slide assembly, air motor, tool kit, Clamshell box, and operating manual.
H&S Tool PB12 Power Beveler
 -  Working Range: 3 in. ID – 14 in. OD (76.2 ID – 355.6 OD mm), Radial Tool Clearance: 14 in. (355.6 mm), Travel: 4.5 in. (114.3 mm)
Power: Pneumatic (3.0 HP / 2.2 kW), Electric (2.5 HP / 1.9 kW), or Hydraulic (5.36 HP / 4.0 kW), Speed: 0 – 18 RPM, 0 – 32 RPM, 0 – 40 RPM
H&S Tool PB8 Power Beveler
 -  Working Range: 2 in. ID – 8.625 in. OD (50.8 ID – 219.1 OD mm), Radial Tool Clearance: 9 in. (228.6 mm), Travel: 3.5 in. (88.9 mm)
Power: Pneumatic (3.0 HP / 2.2 kW), Electric (2.5 HP / 1.9 kW), or Hydraulic (5.36 HP / 4.0 kW), Speed: 0 – 22 RPM, 0 – 37 RPM, 0 – 40 RPM
Hand shield
 -  A protective device, used in arc welding, for shielding the eyes, face and neck. A hand shield is equipped with a suitable filter plate and is designed to be held by the hand.
Hard facing
 -  A particular form of surfacing in which a coating or cladding is applied to a substrate for the main purpose of reducing wear or loss of material by abrasion, impact, erosion, galling, and cavitation. Article: Strengthening Metal Parts with Hardfacing
Heat-affected zone (HAZ)
 -  That portion of the base metal which has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties or microstructure have been already altered by the heat of welding, brazing, soldering, or cutting.
Helmet (eye protection)
 -  A protection device, used in arc welding, for shielding the eyes, face, and neck. A helmet is equipped with a suitable filter plate and is designed to be worn on the head.
Hertz
 -  Hertz is often referred to as "cycles per second." In the United States, the frequency or directional change of alternating current is usually 60 hertz.
High Frequency
 -  Covers the entire frequency spectrum above 50,000 Hz. Used in TIG welding for arc ignition and stabilization.
HIPOWER 1200 I-Line Panel
 -  1200A 45" I-Line rated for 600VAC, Aluminum enclosure, carbon steel protective frame, certified by UL under UL1640 Portable Power Distribution Panel. CSA Standard for safety for Industrial Control Equipment, CAN/CSA C22.2 No.14 (Canada) tested by ETL.
HIPOWER 600A Mini I-Line Panel
 -  600A 27" I-Line rated for 600VAC, Aluminum enclosure, stainless steel protective frame with two 10" casters, certified by UL under UL1640 Portable Power Distribution Panel. CSA Standard for safety for Industrial Control Equipment, CAN/CSA C22.2 No.14 (Canada) tested by ETL.
Horizontal fixed position (pipe welding)
 -  In pipe welding the position of a pipe joint in which the axis of the pipe is approximately horizontal and the pipe is not rotated during welding.
Horizontal rolled position (pipe welding)
 -  The position of a pipe joint in which the axis of the pipe is approximately horizontal, and welding is performed in the flat position by rotating the pipe.
Hot-wire TIG (Tip TIG)
 -  A TIG (GTAW) welding process were the welding wire receives a mechanically applied vibratory effect and electrical current before entering the weld pool. See TIG Pipe Cladding Systems
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
 -  HIC results from the permeation of materials by high levels of ambient hydrogen during welding. See Post Weld Heat Treatment Article
Inadequate joint penetration
 -  Joint penetration which is less than that specified.
Incomplete fusion
 -  Fusion which is less than complete.
Indentation
 -  In a spot, seam, or projection weld, the depression on the exterior surface or surfaces of the base metal.
Induction heating
 -  Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by electromagnetic induction, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents. See induction heating systems
Inert gas
 -  A gas which does not normally combine chemically with the base metal or filler metal. See also protective atmosphere.
Infrared radiation
 -  Electromagnetic energy with wavelengths from 770 to 12000 nanometers.
Intergranular penetration
 -  The penetration of a filler metal along the grain boundaries of a base metal.
Intermittent weld
 -  A weld in which the continuity is broken by recurring unwelded spaces.
Interpass temperature
 -  In a multiple-pass weld, the temperature (minimum or maximum as specified) of the deposited weld metal before the next pass is started.
Inverter Welding Power Source
 -  Power source that increases the frequency of the incoming primary power, thus providing for a smaller size machine and improved electrical characteristics for welding, such as faster response time and more control. Inverters are more portable and lighter weight than traditional transformer-rectifiers, making them easier to maneuver around the job site. In addition, inverters offer high-quality, multi-process welding capabilities so that one machine can handle Stick, MIG, TIG, FCAW, arc gouging and even pulsing.
Inverters can also save money in energy costs over traditional-type power sources since:
Greater transformer efficiencies are realized through the use of ferrite cores in the inverter's power transformer. This reduces the current losses resulting in lower idle currents in the supply conductors.
The inverter transformer coils are physically smaller than common transformers. A smaller coil translates to less wire wrapping around the core - less wire means fewer losses and greater efficiency.
The inverter's power electronic components have been carefully designed to reduce losses and extend operating life.
Many inverters use a copper conductor. Copper has higher thermal and electrical conductivity compared to aluminum, which will minimize losses and maximize efficiency.
Operating at higher frequencies than conventional welders, inverters require less output inductance for smooth operation. The energy needed for stick welding or for globular transfer welding processes is stored in capacitors allowing for smaller output chokes.
The compact design and relatively small physical size of an inverter welder means shorter leads and cables (or even direct connections) between power components. Shorter current paths translate to lower resistances and better efficiencies.
Because the inverter is designed to inherently have low losses, smaller cooling fans are required. This means less power is needed for moving cooling air and, again, greater efficiency.
The smaller size of the components inside the inverter machine translate into less heat to dissipate and again, greater efficiency
Jimmy Jammer
 -  Semi-Automatic Welding System composed of a manipulator, weld oscillator (oscillating welding torch), cross slide, positioner and turning rolls. The semi-automatic weld oscillator controls the positioners and turning rolls.
Joined buildup sequence
 -  The order in which the weld beads of a multiple-pass weld are deposited with respect to the cross section of the joint.
Joint
 -  The junction of members or the edges of members which are to be joined or have been joined.
Joint clearance
 -  The distance between the faying surfaces of a joint. In brazing this distance is referred to as that which is present either before brazing, at the brazing temperature, or after brazing is completed.
Joint design
 -  The joint geometry together with the required dimensions of the welded joint.
Joint efficiency
 -  The ratio of the strength of a joint to the strength of the base metal (expressed in percent).
Joint geometry
 -  The shape and dimensions of a joint in cross section prior to welding.
Joint penetration
 -  The minimum depth a groove or flange weld extends from its face into a joint, exclusive of reinforcement. Joint penetration may include root penetration.
Joint welding procedure
 -  The materials, detailed methods and practices employed in the welding of a particular joint.
Kerf
 -  The width of the cut produced during a cutting process.
Keyhole TIG
 -  A high speed, full penetration GTAW welding technology that offers enormous productivity, cost and quality advantages over existing processes in stainless steels and other corrosion resistant materials. It requires no edge beveling, uses as little as 10 percent of the gas normally required, and produces highly repeatable, X-ray quality welds with superb cap and root aesthetics.
Kilogram (kg)
 -  The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). 1 Kilogram = 2.2 pounds | 1 pound = 0.453592 Kilograms.
kVA (1,000 volt-amps)
 -  A kVA is 1,000 volt-amps. It's what you get when you multiply the voltage (the force that moves electrons around a circuit) by the amps (electrical current). Kilovolt-amps measure what's called the 'apparent power' of a generator. This is different from kilowatts (kW), which measure the 'true power'. kW is the amount of 'actual power' an electrical system has. This shows you how much power is being converted into useful, working output. kVA, on the other hand is the measure of 'apparent' power. If kW is how much power you can work with, kVA tells you how much is being used in the system overall.
kW (Kilowatts)
 -  A kilowatt is simply 1,000 watts, which is a measure of power. Primary kW is the actual power used by a power source when it is producing its rated output. Secondary kW is the actual power output of a welding power source. Kilowatts are found by taking volts times amps divided by 1,000 and taking into account any power factor.
Lap joint
 -  A joint between two overlapping members.
Layer
 -  A stratum of weld metal or surfacing material. The layer may consist of one or more weld beads laid side by side.
Leg of a fillet weld
 -  The distance from the root of the joint to the toe of the fillet weld.
Lightly coated electrode
 -  A filler metal electrode consisting of a metal wire with a light coating applied subsequent to the drawing operation, primarily for stabilizing the arc.
Lincoln 4C® Lens Technology
 -  4C® lens technology broadens the color range and hues which can be seen in both light and dark states. This eliminates imperfections and color saturation to create the clearest view of the base material, arc and puddle.
Lincoln AC Aluminum Pulse
 -  With the help of the Lincoln Electric Power Wave® Advanced Module, GMAW aluminum welding results can be improved over traditional DC positive aluminum MIG welding. By switching the polarity of the arc, heat input is reduced and deposition rates are enhanced.
Lincoln AC Auto-Balance®
 -  AC Auto Balance® automatically provides for the optimal mix of cleaning and penetration for welding on aluminum. When welding thicker material requiring increased penetration, or when requiring increased cleaning action to break through heavy oxide layers, bypass AC Auto Balance and adjust manually for full control.
Lincoln AC-STT®
 -  Based off Lincoln Electric’s patented STT® process, AC-STT® combines the proven spatter reducing technology of the STT® waveform with the balanced heat-input characteristics of AC GMAW, producing an advanced short circuit process optimized specifically for thin-gauge materials.
Lincoln AC180-S Electric Welder K1137 Legacy
 -  180A AC @ 25V, 20% duty cycle, 44-75A current range, 208/230/1/60
Lincoln AC225-S Electric Welder K1170 Legacy
 -  225A AC @25V, 20% duty cycle, 40-225A current range, 208/230/1/60, 4610.1
Lincoln ArcFX™ GUI Technology
 -  Lincoln Electric's patented ArcFX™ technology provides instant graphical feedback on the user interface, illustrating how Wire Feed Speed and Voltage affect the weld outcome. The memory capability enables users to load and save weld settings, while its adjustable features allow for a customized welding session.
Lincoln Bulldog 5500 Engine Driven Welder (Kohler) CC AC K2708-2
 -  RATED OUTPUT 100A AC/25V/60%, 125A AC/20V/30%, OUTPUT RANGE 70-140A, GENERATOR OUTPUT 5500 watts peak, 4000 watts continuous, ENGINE Kohler® CH395, 8.9HP @ 3600 RPM, 1 cylinder, NET WEIGHT 198.00 (89.81 kg), AC Welding with up to 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) Stick Electrode, 5,500 Watts Surge (4,000 Watts Continuous) AC Generator Power
Lincoln Cable View™ Technology
 -  Powered by patented Cable View™ Technology, Lincoln's PIPEFAB™ welding system continually monitors cable inductance and adjusts the waveform to maintain consistent arc performance with long or coiled cable runs up to 65ft (or inductance levels up to 45 µH).
• Consistent arc performance with no sense lead, even in long or coiled cable runs
• Warning notification if inductance is outside of performance threshold
Lincoln CheckPoint™
 -  Lincoln Electric's CheckPoint is a full production cloud-based monitoring solution that delivers precise information for maximizing welding productivity and performance. CheckPoint provides full visibility of your welding operations faster, cleaner and more efficiently. From real-time dashboard snapshots to in-depth weld analytics, CheckPoint's framework is built to provide essential welding data the way you need it for whatever your role may have.
Lincoln CrossLinc
 -  A technology developed by Lincoln Electric that provides the ability for the operator to adjust voltage at the wirefeeder without the need for an additional control cable or wireless remote. Voltage changes are communicated from the wire feeder to the power source using existing welding cables.
Lincoln Flextec 350X Construction CE Multi-Process Welder K4283-1
 -  SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, CAC-A
Lincoln Flextec 350X Construction Multi-Process Welder K4271-1
 -  SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, CAC-A
Lincoln Flextec 350X PowerConnect Multi-Process Welder K4273-1
 -  SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, GMAW-P, FCAW, CAC-A, PowerConnect Technology: 200-600V/1/3
Lincoln Flextec 350X Standard CE Multi-Process Welder K4284-1
 -  SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, CAC-A
Lincoln Flextec 350X Standard Multi-Process Welder K4272-1
 -  SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, CAC-A
Lincoln Idealarc TIG300 Electric Welder K1174
 -  300A AC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 2-375A AC, high-frequency control, 230/440/1/60, K1176 - 50 cycle version 4608.1
Lincoln Idealarc TIG300/300 Electric Welder, K1175
 -  300A AC/DC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 2-375A AC/DC, high-frequency control, 230/440/1/60, K1177 - 50 cycle version 4608.1
Lincoln Idealarc TM300 Electric Welder K1103
 -  300A AC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 30-450A AC, 230/440/1/60, K1111 - 50 cycle version, K1119 - 25 cycle version
Lincoln Idealarc TM300/300 Electric Welder K1104
 -  300A AC/DC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 30-450A AC, 45-375A DC, 230/440/1/60, K1112 - 50 cycle version, K1120 - 25 cycle version
Lincoln Idealarc TM400 Electric Welder K1105
 -  400A AC/DC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 40-600A AC, 45-375A DC, 230/440/1/60, K1113 - 50 cycle version
Lincoln Idealarc TM400/400 Electric Welder K1107
 -  400A AC/DC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 40-600A AC, 45-375A DC, 230/440/1/60, K1115 - 50 cycle version
Lincoln Idealarc TM500 Electric Welder K1108
 -  500A AC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 50-750A AC, 230/440/1/60, K1116 - 50 cycle version
Lincoln Idealarc TM500/500 Electric Welder K1110
 -  500A AC/DC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 50-750A AC, 75-625A DC, 230/440/1/60, K1118 - 50 cycle version
Lincoln Idealarc TM650 Electric Welder K1121
 -  650A AC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 50-850A AC, 230/440/1/60
Lincoln Idealarc TM650/650 Electric Welder K1126
 -  650A AC/DC at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 50-850A AC, 75-750A DC, 230/440/1/60, 4607.1
Lincoln Low Fume Pulse™
 -  Technology developed by Lincoln Electric which simplifies the balancing act between weld-fume control and weld floor productivity. This advanced pulsed welding process maximizes arc performance while effectively controlling heat-input.
Lincoln Micro-Start Technology™
 -  Micro-Start TIG technology employs an independent power supply capable of welding without SCR assistance at low amperages – SCRs only fire to raise the current and supplement the 2 amp welding supply. This gives Micro-Start TIG very stable low current welding and provides it with the ability to eliminate erratic high frequency and weld thin materials in a consistent, high quality manner. Lincoln is the first manufacturer to offer a background circuit from which an operator can weld and smoothly transition to, or from, higher outputs. Micro-Start TIG is capable of independently welding off of its electronic power supply when the amperage is down to the minimum rated 2 amps. As the operator depresses the foot Amptrol™ to increase the current, the main welding circuit (i.e. transformer and SCR bridge) turns on and provides amperage. The technology assists the transformer SCR choke circuit with its special electronic welding circuit instead of completely relying on chokes to smooth the arc as do conventional machines. The result is a very stable and smooth output at low amperage levels. With Micro-Start TIG, operators don’t have to buy more expensive machines to get low end welding capabilities – Micro-Start technology is able to provide inverter-like performance using a lower cost, conventional machine. With Lincoln’s Micro-Start TIG technology, an operator at virtually any TIG skill level will be able to make repeatable, high-quality starts, welds and finishes. This is because the new technology makes it easy to overcome the most common TIG welding issues with machines that overcome the most common performance limitations.
Lincoln Micro-Start™ II Technology
 -  Micro-Start II provides the operator with the ability to weld at lower DC amperages and “feather out” to as low as 2-5 amps at the end of the weld. Also, once the high frequency initiates the DC arc, the control circuit prevents the high frequency from coming on again during crater fill. In effect, the high frequency is no longer needed because Micro-Start technology provides tremendous low amperage stability for the machine. With Micro-Start II technology (found on Lincoln Precision TIG welders), Lincoln Electric has devised a way to get the arc established more quickly, more smoothly and with greater stability. It does this using an electronic low amp welding power supply to supplement the main power supply. The starting circuit offers just enough energy to heat the tungsten and establish a more stable plasma flow to the work piece. This starting sequence is short and provides precise control over starting conditions. In effect, Micro-Start II technology is so effective that most operators cannot detect that the high frequency was used during starting. In many traditional, low amperage TIG applications, operators have trouble maintaining a smooth, stable arc. This is because the machine's choke cannot store enough energy between SCR firings to stabilize the arc. The resultant ‘ripple effect’ creates arc instability, which may result in arc outages followed by high-frequency arc re-initiations. These erratic outages can lead to inconsistencies in the weld. Micro-Start TIG utilizes a separate electronic power supply to establish an arc and weld at the Precision TIG minimum rated amps. When the operator first depresses the foot pedal, this separate power supply starts and welds independently of the Precision TIG main welding circuit (i.e. transformer and SCR bridge). As the operator further depresses the foot pedal to increase the current, the main welding circuit turns on and provides additional amperage. Unlike conventional machines, which rely completely on the SCR choke, Micro-Start technology’s special electronic welding circuit assists the transformer SCR choke circuit by delivering smooth power to the arc. This gives the Precision TIG very stable low-current welding capability and provides the customer with the ability to weld thin materials in a consistent, high-quality manner.
Lincoln Outback 145 Engine Driven Welder CC DC (Kohler) K2707-2
 -  RATED OUTPUT 100A DC/25V/60%, 125A DC/25V/30% OUTPUT RANGE 50-145A DC, GENERATOR OUTPUT 4750 watts peak, 4250 watts continuous, ENGINE Kohler® CH395, 8.9 HP @ 3600 RPM, 1 cylinder, NET WEIGHT 234.00 (106.14 kg), DC Welding with up to 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) Stick Electrode, 4,750 Watts Peak (4,250 Watts Continuous) AC Generator Power, ARC PERFORMANCE General purpose DC Stick welding up to 145 amps, 1/8" stick electrode
Lincoln PIPEFAB™ Welding System Ready-Pak® K3734-1
 -  The PIPEFAB™ system comes with weld modes optimized specifically for pipe and vessel fabrication using all processes (Stick, MIG, TIG and FCAW) that have been fine-tuned for maximum performance with the industry’s common, filler metal, wire diameters and gas mixtures.
• Stick modes optimized for cellulosic and low hydrogen electrodes
• MIG modes optimized for 0.035 in. & 0.045 in. steel, stainless steel and metal-cored
• MIG modes optimized for simplicity (Smart Pulse™) and fume management (Low Fume Pulse™)
• Flux-cored modes optimized for 0.045 in., 0.052 in., 1/16 in.
200-208/220-230/380-415/460/57 PIPEFAB™ Power Source K3731-1, PIPEFAB™ Power Source (CE) K3732-1, PIPEFAB™ Feeder K3735-1, PIPEFAB™ Ready-Pak K3734-1
LIncoln Power Mode®
 -  Enhanced MIG mode developed by Lincoln Electric which can deliver excellent arc stability with reduced spatter at high travels speeds, resulting from an extended short arc range at higher wire feed speed procedures. It also yields a tight and stable arc in spray transfer.
Lincoln PowerConnect® Technology
 -  A technology developed by Lincoln Electric that allows for automatic connecting to any incoming voltage 200-575VAC, single or three-phase, 50 or 60Hz
Lincoln Precision Pulse™
 -  Enhanced MIG pulse mode by Lincoln Electric featuring a tight, focused arc for fast vertical up welding and outstanding out-of-position puddle control.
Lincoln Pulse-on-Pulse®
 -  Arc modulation MIG pulse mode by Lincoln Electric that can deliver a TIG (GTAW)-like bead appearance.
LIncoln Ranger 225 Engine Driven Welder K2857-1
 -  Kohler
Stick, TIG, MIG, Flux-Cored
Lincoln Ranger 250 GXT Engine Driven Welder K2382-4
 -  Kohler with electric fuel pump
Stick, TIG, MIG, Flux-Cored, Gouging
Lincoln Ranger 250 GXT Engine Driven Welder K2382-5
 -  Kohler with electric fuel pump, Stainless Steel Case
Stick, TIG, MIG, Flux-Cored, Gouging
Lincoln Ranger 260MPX Engine Drive Welder K3458-1
 -  Kohler® OHV Command CH730 gas engine, 23.5 HP @ 3600 RPM The Ranger® 260MPX™ engine driven welder/generator's industry-leading design makes it smaller, lighter and quieter than other machines in its class, while an intuitive user interface with advanced technology helps simplify operation and improve arc control. Chopper Technology® feature helps improve arc control. The 9.5kW generator provides clean power to run a variety of tools and sensitive equipment with 5% Total Harmonic Distortion. Features include CrossLinc® remote technology for arc adjustments at the weld.
IEC Output Range - DC Stick: 231A/29.2V/100% DC TIG: 260A/20.4V/100% DC Constant Voltage: 253A/26.7V/100%
Generator Peak Power 9.5kW, Generator Continuous Power 10kW
Lincoln Ranger 260MPX Engine Drive Welder K3458-1
 -  NON-IEC Rating: 260A/26V/100%
IEC Rating: DC Stick: 231A/29.2V/100%, DC TIG: 260A/20.4V/100%, DC Constant Voltage: 253A/26.7V/100%
Kohler OHV Command CH730 Gas, 23.5 HP @3600
Stick, TIG, MIG, Flux-Cored
Lincoln Ranger 330MPX Gas Engine Welder K3459-1
 -  CrossLinc, Kohler OHV Command CH740, 2 cylinder, 25 HP @ 3600 RPM, 10 kW continuous 11.5 kW peak auxiliary power, DC Stick: 292A/31.7V/100%, DC TIG: 330A/23.2V/100%, DC Constant Voltage: 312A/ 29.6V 100%
Lincoln Rapid X™
 -  Premium MIG pulse mode developed by Lincoln Electric, designed to deliver higher travels speeds and extremely low spatter levels.
Lincoln Rapid Z™
 -  Lincoln Electric process designed to increase stability and travel speeds, while reducing spatter and internal porosity on Zinc coated materials.
Lincoln RapidArc®
 -  Accelerated MIG pulse mode with a short arc length compared to pulse and CV-spray for high travel speed applications. Developed by Lincoln Electric.
Lincoln Ready-To-Run™
 -  Lincoln's Ready-to-Run™ feature (on the PIPEFAB™ welding system) keeps all process outputs electrically isolated and ready to weld when needed – eliminating the need to swap cables to change welding processes.
Lincoln Shield Arc SAE300-F226 Gas Engine Welder K1197
 -  Continental F226 gas, 6 cylinder, 226 CID, 50 HP @ 1500 RPM, 300A at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 1kW 115VDC, Type R-57 delayed action automatic engine idler 4300.1
Lincoln Shield Arc SAE400-F244 Gas Engine Welder K1198
 -  Continental F244 gas, 6 cylinder, 226 CID, 60 HP @ 1700 RPM, 400A at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 1kW 115VDC, Type R-57 delayed action automatic engine idler 4300.1
Lincoln Shield Arc SAE600-G3400 Gas Engine Welder K1200-SM
 -  Hercules G3400 gas, 6 cylinder, 226 CID, 82 HP @ 1400 RPM, 600A at 40V @ 60% duty cycle, 1kW 115VDC, Type R-57 delayed action automatic engine idler 4300.1
Lincoln Shield-Arc SA200 Hercules IXB Gas Engine Welder
 -  Hercules IXB, 4 cylinder, 133 CID, 31 HP @ 1800 RPM (per E128 graph)
Lincoln Shield-Arc SA200-F162 Gas Engine Welder K6090
 -  Continental F162 gas, 4 cylinder, 162 CID, 36 HP at 1450 RPM, 200A at 40V @ 60% duty cycle NEMA rated, 1kW 115VDC, Type R-57 delayed action automatic engine idler, optional K-6090-SM model with 12V battery-driven electric-start (standard model - hand crank), built circa 1963
Lincoln Shield-Arc SA200-F163 Gas Engine Welder K6090
 -  Continental F163 gas, 4 cylinder, IM208-A, IM276-B, IM277-A, P23-A, P111-A
Lincoln Shield-Arc SA200-L200 Gas Engine Welder S6090
 -  L200 Continental F162 gas, 4 cylinder, 162 CID, 27 HP at 1400 RPM, IM127-B
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE300 Gas Engine Welder Hercules QXLD-3
 -  Hercules QXLD-3, 6 cylinder gas engine
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-10
 -  Deutz F4L912 Diesel Non-EPA, 4 cylinder, 59.6 HP @ 1800 RPM (Export Only) 400A DC/40V/100%, 500A DC/40V/35% Optional CV Adapter for flux-cored welding
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-14
 -  Perkins 1104A-44 Diesel Non-EPA Tier II, 4 cylinder, 64.4 HP @ 1710 RPM (International Export Only) 400A DC/40V/100%, 500A DC/40V/60% Optional CV Adapter for flux-cored welding
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-15
 -  Perkins 1104A-44 Diesel, High-Capacity AC Power, 4 Cylinder, 64.4 HP @ 1710 RPM 13,000 watts 3-phase 240V, 10,000 watts 1-phase 120V/240V, Euro and NEMA receptacles Non-EPA (Export Only)
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-7
 -  Perkins 1104C-44 Diesel EPA Tier II, 4 cylinder, 68.4 HP @ 1725 RPM
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-8 Severe Duty
 -  Perkins 1104C-44 Diesel EPA Tier II, 4 cylinder, 68.4 HP @ 1,725 RPM
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-9
 -  Perkins 1104A-44 Diesel, Tier II, 4 cylinder, 68.4 HP @ 1710 RPM, Not EPA Tier II Compliant (Export Only)
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE500 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-11
 -  Kubota V3600-T Turbo Diesel EPA Tier 4i, 4 cylinder, 57.8 HP @ 1800 400A/40V/100% 500A/40V/60%
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE500 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-12 Severe Duty
 -  Kubota V3600-T Turbo Diesel EPA Tier 4i, 4 cylinder, 57.8 HP @ 1800 400A/40V/100% 500A/40V/60%
Lincoln Shield-Arc SAE500 Diesel Engine Welder K3955-1 Severe Duty
 -  Deutz TD2.9L4 Turbo Diesel T4F Compliant 64 HP @ 1800 RPM 400A/40V/100%, 500A/40V/60%
Lincoln Smart Pulse™
 -  Smart Pulse™ delivers an innovative solution for pulse welding simplicity and performance. Utilizing Waveform Control Technology®, Smart Pulse™ monitors your machine settings and automatically tailors the pulse to deliver the ideal arc for your pipe welding needs.
• Set a low WFS for out-of-position pipe welding – Smart Pulse™ auto-adjusts for a narrow, focused arc
• Set a high WFS for 1G pipe welding – Smart Pulse™ auto-adjusts for a wide, soft arc
• Less time adjusting means more time welding
Lincoln Square Wave®
 -  The AC output of a power source that has the ability to rapidly switch between the positive and negative half cycles of alternating current.
Lincoln Surface Tension Transfer (STT)
 -  An advanced waveform MIG welding process developed by Lincoln Electric. STT uses high frequency inverter technology with advanced waveform control to produce a high-quality weld with less spatter and smoke. Easy to operate and can achieve good weld penetration with low heat input.
Lincoln Synchronized Tandem MIG®
 -  Lincoln Electric technology which overcomes deposition rate limitations of a single wire by using two wires and specific waveforms. The result is nearly double deposition rates and faster travel speeds.
Lincoln TVT™ True Voltage Technology™ voltage drop compensation
 -  In many outdoor welding applications the operator can be located hundreds of feet away from the power source. All that cable can create a difference in voltage, or voltage drop, between the power source and the weld. For example, if 24 volts is set on the welding power source, as a result of electrical resistance through the cables, only 20 volts may actually be available at the wire feeder. This would result in a cold weld. True Voltage Technology (TVT) calculates this drop and gives the true voltage set at the wire feeder by adjusting the power source to compensate for the voltage drop. In this example, 24 volts is preset at the wire feeder. TVT senses there is a 4 volt drop due to long weld cables and compensates by increasing the welder power source output to 28 volts. The result is that the desired 24 volt is available at the welding arc.
Lincoln VIKING™ PAPR 3350 Welding Helmet Powered Air Purifying Respirator K3930-1
 -  The VIKING™ PAPR is a complete system that purifies ambient air from the shop and delivers filtered, breathable air for as much as eight hours without interruption. The two-speed blower drives filtered air through the hose into a modified VIKING™ 3350 helmet which has a perfect 1/1/1/1 optical clarity and now also features 4C™ Lens Technology. A patent pending adjustable baffling system inside the helmet directs air away from eyes to keep them from getting dry. The PAPR system has an OSHA Assigned Protection Factor of 25(3). The PAPR system is equipped with a VIKING 3350 helmet that offers a top EN 379-1/1/1/1 optical clarity rating.
Lincoln Weldanpower 225 Gas Welder K1190 Legacy
 -  Wisconsin THD gas, 2 cylinder, 14.2 HP at 2200 RPM, 225A at 25V @ 40% duty cycle, 5kW 115/230V
Liquidus
 -  The lowest temperature at which a metal or an alloy is completely liquid.
Local preheating
 -  Preheating a specific portion of a structure.
Local stress relief heat treatment
 -  Stress relief heat treatment of a specific portion of a structure.
Longitudinal sequence
 -  The order in which the increments of a continuous weld are deposited with respect to its length.
Machine welding
 -  Welding with equipment which performs the welding operation under the constant observation and control of a welding operator. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and unloading of the work.
Macro Testing
 -  A destructive testing method where the sections of a weld are polished, etched and examined under a microscope for defects.
Manual welding
 -  A welding operation performed and controlled completely by hand.
Melt-thru
 -  Complete joint penetration for a joint welded from one side. Visible root reinforcement is produced.
Melting range
 -  The temperature range between solidus and liquidus.
Melting rate
 -  The weight or length of electrode melted in a unit of time.
Metal cored electrode
 -  Composite filler metal electrode consisting of a metal tube or other hollow configuration containing alloying ingredients. Minor amounts of ingredients providing such functions as arc stabilization and fluxing of oxides may be included. External shielding gas may or may not be used.
Metal electrode
 -  A fillet or non-filler metal electrode, used in arc welding or cutting consisting of a metal wire or rod that has been manufactured by any method and that is either bare or covered with a suitable covering or coating.
Metallic bond
 -  The principal bond which holds metals together and which is formed between base metals and filler metals in all welding processes. This is a primary bond arising from the increased spatial extension of the valence electron wave functions when an aggregate of metal atoms is brought close together.
Method
 -  An orderly arrangement or set form of procedure to be used in the application of welding or allied processes.
Microprocessor
 -  One or more integrated circuits that can be programmed with stored instructions to perform a variety of functions.
MIG (GMAW) Welding
 -  MIG is an acronym for Metal-Inert-Gas, also known as GMAW or Gas Metal Arc Welding. This arc welding process uses a spooled, continuously fed filler metal (consumable) electrode. Shielding is provided by externally supplied gas or gas mixtures. Easiest process to learn, High welding speeds possible, Provides better control on thinner metals, Cleaner welds possible with no slag, Same equipment can be used for flux-cored welding. For welding steel, stainless steel, nickel alloys, aluminium, copper/brass. Learn More about: Aluminum MIG Welding, MIG Packages, MIG Wirefeeder Welders
MIG/MAG GMAW Welding
 -  MIG stands for Metal Inert Gas. Only inert gases or gas mixtures are used for the shielding gas when MIG welding. Typical inert gases used for MIG welding are argon and helium. These gases are usually used for MIG welding of aluminium and other non-ferrous metals. MAG stands for Metal Active Gas. Active gas mixtures have been developed primarily for welding steels. Typical shielding gases are mixtures of argon, carbon dioxide and oxygen e.g. CO2 , Ar + 2 to 5% O2 , Ar + 5 to 25% CO2 and Ar + 10% CO2 + 5% O 2 . The composition of the shielding gas has a substantial effect on the stability of the arc, metal transfer and the amount of spatter. The shielding gas also affects the behaviour of the weld pool, particularly its penetration and the mechanical properties of the welded joint. In the US, both MIG and MAG welding are described by the term GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding).
Miller Accu-Pulse®
 -  MIG process that delivers precise control of the arc even over tack welds and in tight corners. Provides optimum and precise molten puddle controL. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Accu-Rated™ Power
 -  The standard for measuring engine-driven generator power. Guarantees delivery of all power promised. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Active Arc Stabilizer™
 -  A Miller Technology Exclusive - Active Arc Stabilizer enhances arc starts and provides a softer arc throughout all ranges, with less puddle turbulence and less spatter.
Miller Adaptive Hot Start™
 -  Automatically increases the output amperage at the start of a stick weld, should the start require it. Helps eliminate sticking of the electrode at arc start. A Miller Technology Exclusive. Available on these machines: 12VX Extreme Duty, EXtreme 360 MAP , Miller Syncrowave 250 DX , Miller Syncrowave 350 LX , Miller XMT 350 MPa
Miller Advanced Active Field Control Technology™
 -  A simple and reliable patented way of accurately controlling an engine drive's generator weld output. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Aluminum Pulse Hot Start™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive automatically provides more arc power to the Millermatic® 350P to eliminate a "cold start" that is inherent with aluminum starts.
Miller Arc-Drive
 -  Automatically enhances Stick welding, especially on pipe, by focusing the arc and preventing the electrode from going out. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller ArcConnect™
 -  Next generation communication that utilizes high-speed signals to improve weld performance and allow point-of-use controls to be located at the feeder. Found on the Deltaweld 350 System.
Miller ArcReach™
 -  Technology developed by Miller Electric that provides the ability for a welding operator to make parameter adjustments at the wire feeder without the need for control cords or specialized wireless remotes. Voltage changes are communicated from the wire feeder to the power source using existing welding cables. Multiprocess (Dimension 650 ArcReach, XMT 350 FieldPro models, XMT 450 CC/CV ArcReach), Engine Drives (Trailblazer 325 with ArcReach, Big Blue ArcReach models)
Miller Auto Remote Sense™
 -  Automatically switches machine from panel to remote control with remote connected. Available on Dimension™ NT 450, XMT® 350, Trailblazer® Series, and PRO 300. Eliminates confusion and need for panel/remote. A Miller Technology Exclusive
Miller Auto-Crater™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows a TIG arc on the Trailblazer® Series to crater-out, allowing time for the addition of filler, without the loss of shielding gas. Eliminates the need for a remote control at arc end.
Miller Auto-Line™ Technology
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows for any primary input voltage within a range, single- or three-phase, 50 or 60 hertz with no manual linking. Also adjusts for voltage spikes within the entire range. Provides convenience in any job setting and is ideal for dirty or unreliable power. Available on MIG (Millermatic 255, AlumaPower 350, Invision 352, Continuum, Auto-Continuum), Multiprocess (Multimatic 255, Dynasty, XMT 350), Stick (Maxstar), TIG (Maxstar, Syncrowave 210, Dynasty, Plasma cutters (Spectrum)
Miller Auto-Link®
 -  Internal inverter power source circuit that automatically links the power source to the primary voltage being applied (230 V or 460 V), without the need for manually linking primary voltage terminals. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Auto-Refire™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive automatically controls the pilot arc when cutting expanded metal or multiple pieces of metal, without manual re-triggering.
Miller Auto-Set™
 -  Provides speed, convenience and confidence of preset controls and eliminates guesswork when setting weld parameters. Variations of this technology include Advanced Auto-Set and Auto-Set Elite. MIG (Millermatic 141/211/212 Auto-Set/255), Multiprocess (Multimatic)
Miller Auto-Speed™
 -  Automatically adjusts engine speed to a corresponding rpm level so the engine never works harder than necessary. Reduces fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and noise levels on the Trailblazer 325 engine drive.
Miller Auto-Stop™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows a TIG arc to be stopped without the loss of shielding gas on the Trailblazer® Series.
Miller Automatic Start at Idle
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive idles engine immediately when started, extending engine life and reducing fuel consumption and noise.
Miller Axcess™ File Management
 -  Software that turns a standard Palm handheld into a data card and a remote pendant for all Axcess systems. Allows emailing, storage and transfer of welding programs. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller ClearLight™ Lens Technology
 -  Optimizes contrast and clarity in welding and light states. 1/1/1/2 optical clarity rating allows a lighter light state while not welding, providing versatility for varied applications. Found on T94, Digital Infinity, Digital Elite and Digital Performance welding helmets.
Miller Cool-On-Demand™
 -  Integrated cooler runs only when needed on Syncrowave® 250 DX and 350 LX. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Dual Power Option™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive gives the option on the PipePro® 304 engine drive to use 230 volt single- or three-phase electric input power, eliminating engine wear, noise and emissions, as well as fuel costs.
Miller Dynamic DIG™
 -  Automatically adjusts the amount of current required to clear a short. Delivers a smoother, more consistent arc that can be tailored to match the application, material, fit-up and welder technique. Found on Trailblazer 325 and Big Blue engine drives
Miller Engine Save Start™
 -  Idles engine three - four seconds after starting on Trailblazer® 275 DC and 302. Extends engine life and reduces fuel consumption.A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Excel™ Power
 -  Provides 2,400 watts (20 A) of 120-volt power at all engine speeds, including idle. Reduces fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and noise levels on select models of the Trailblazer.
Miller Fan-On-Demand™
 -  Fan only operates when needed to reduce noise, energy use and amount of contaminants pulled through the machine. Found on various MIG, multiprocess, stick, TIG and plasma cutter products.
Miller Fan-On-Demand™
 -  Internal power source cooling system that only works when needed, keeping internal components cleaner. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller FasTip™ Contact Tip
 -  Patented, single-turn for quick change — no tools needed. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Gun-On-Demand™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows you to use either a standard gun or a Spoolmatic® gun on Millermatic® 210, 251 and 350 without flipping a switch. The machine senses which gun you are using when you pull the trigger.
Miller Hot Start™
 -  Used on some stick (SMAW) machines to make it easier to start difficult-to-start electrodes. Used for arc starting only. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller InfoTrack™
 -  Data monitoring technology tracks arc time and features a clock. Version 2.0 adds arc count. Found on T94 and Digital Infinity welding helmets
Miller Insight ArcAgent™
 -  Insight ArcAgent™ is a set of premium data acquisition tools that enable both Insight Core and Insight Centerpoint solutions to integrate with any brand of welding power source.
Miller Insight Centerpoint™
 -  Insight Centerpoint™ is an advanced PC-based operator feedback solution designed to detect missed welds, verify proper weld sequence and provide weld defect detection — all in real time. Insight ArcAgent
Miller Insight Core™
 -  Insight Core™ is a simplified, internet-based welding information solution that reports operator productivity and deposition, as well as weld parameter verification.
Miller Insight Welding Intelligence™
 -  Includes Insight Core™, Centerpoint™, and ArcAgent™ applications for digital communications and data storage that integrate with Miller and other manufacturers' welding equipment.
Miller Lift-Arc™
 -  This feature allows TIG arc starting without high frequency. Starts the arc at any amperage without contaminating the weld with tungsten. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Low OCV Stick Mode
 -  A built-in, selectable feature, that reduces the Stick mode open-circuit voltage (OCV) to nearly 15 volts when the welding power source is not in use. Eliminates the need for add-on voltage reducers.
Miller Low OCV Stick™
 -  Reduces OCV on several Maxstar® and Dynasty® models when power source is not in use, eliminating need for add-on voltage reducers. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller LVC™ (Line Voltage Compensation)
 -  Keeps the output of a power source constant, regardless of minor fluctuations in input power. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller LVC™ (Line Voltage Compensation)
 -  Keeps the output of a power source constant, regardless of minor fluctuations in input power. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller MTE
 -  Miller Technology Exclusive
Miller MVP™ (Multi-Voltage Plugs and Adapters)
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows connection of Millermatic® DVI™ or Passport™ to 115- or 230-volt receptacles without tools — just choose the plug that fits the receptacle. MIG (Millermatic 211), Multiprocess (Multimatic 200/215/220 AC/DC), Stick (Thunderbolt 160), TIG (Diversion, Syncrowave 210), Engine Drives (Fusion), Plasma Cutters (Spectrum 375/625)
Miller Palm™ OS Compatibility
 -  Replaces the need for data cards and remote control pendants on Miller Axcess models.
Miller Power Shift
 -  Provides single-phase stick weld capability with the engine shut off by plugging into 120- or 240-volt wall power. Ideal for indoor or noise-sensitive environments. Found on the Miller Fusion engine drive.
Miller Pro-Set™
 -  Provides speed, convenience and confidence of preset controls and eliminates guesswork when setting TIG weld parameters. Multiprocess (Multimatic 220 AC/DC, Dynasty), TIG (Syncrowave 210, Dynasty, Maxstar)
Miller QuickTech™
 -  Provides easy setup and process changing on the Multimatic 220 AC/DC multiprocess welder. Automatically determines polarity. Work is always connected to the bottom right receptacle. MIG gun and TIG torch can stay connected at the same time. Automatically switches to the right process. Just hit trigger or foot control and the machine automatically changes, eliminating the need to manually change processes. Automatically recalls settings from the last process used.
Miller Regulated Metal Deposition (RMD)
 -  An advanced welding process developed by Miller Electric. Also known as modified short-circuit MIG, it is a precisely controlled short-circuit transfer technology that improves welding quality and productivity on stainless steel pipe. See the Miller Pipeworx 400.
Miller SharpArc®
 -  Optimizes the size and shape of the arc cone, bead width and appearance, and puddle fluidity. Available on the Millermatic® 350/350P. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Sun Vision™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows easy reading of digital meters in direct sunlight or shade on Trailblazer® 275 DC and 302.
Miller SureStart™
 -  Provides consistent Axcess® arc starts by precisely controlling power levels for specific wire and gas combinations. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Syncro Start™
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive allows selectable customized arc starts on Syncrowave® 200, 250 DX and 350 LX.
Miller Tip Saver Short Circuit Protection™
 -  Shuts down output when the MIG contact tip is shorted to the work, on the Millermatic® 135 and 175. Extends contact tip life and protects machine. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Torch Detection™
 -  Syncrowave® 250 DX and 350 LX detect if TIG torch is water- or air-cooled. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Tri-Cor™ Technology
 -  Stabilizer design on the Bobcat™ 250 that delivers smoother welds and decreased spatter with E7018 electrodes, without sacrificing performance with E6010 electrodes. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Versa-Pulse™
 -  Versa-Pulse™ is a fast, low-heat, low-spatter process designed for materials up to 1/4 inch and is great for gap filling.
Miller WaveWriter™ File Management
 -  This Miller Technology Exclusive includes all Axcess™ file management functions, plus a simple, graphical wave-shaping program for the most demanding pulsed MIG applications.
Miller Weld at Idle™
 -  Allows PipePro™ 304 to automatically weld at a quieter, lower RPM, using less fuel. When more output is required, the machine goes to high speed without a change in arc.
Miller Wind Tunnel Technology™
 -  Internal airflow on many Miller inverters, that protects electrical components and PC boards from contamination, significantly improving reliability. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller X-Mode™
 -  Electromagnetically senses the weld to eliminate sunlight interference and continuously detects the arc even if sensors are blocked. Found on T94, Digital Infinity, Digital Elite and Classic VSi welding helmets
Miller XMT 350 Series Multiprocess Welding Power Source
 -  DC18.93 Nov 2015 Legacy
XMT 350 VS 907224208 – 575V with Auto-Line™ (without 14-pin, Tweco® connectors)
XMT 350 CC/CV 907161 - 208–575V with Auto-Line™
XMT 350 CC/CV 907161-01-1 - 208–575V with Auto-Line™ and auxiliary power
XMT 350 CC/CV 907161-01-2 - 230–460V with Auto-Line™ and auxiliary power and CE
XMT 350 CC/CV 907161-01-4 - 208–575V with Auto-Line™ and Tweco® connectors
XMT 350 MPa 907366 - 208–575V with Auto-Line™
XMT 350 MPa 907366-01-1 - 208–575V with Auto-Line™ and auxiliary power
XMT 350 MPa 907366-002 - 230–460V with Auto-Line™ and auxiliary power and CE
XMT 350 MPa 907366-01-4 - 208–575V with Auto-Line™ and Tweco® connectors
XMT 350 VS ArcReach 907224002 - 208–575 V with Auto-Line™ and Tweco connectors
XMT 350 CC/CV ArcReach 907161032 - 208 – 575 V with Auto-Line™ and Tweco connectors
Molten weld pool
 -  The liquid state of a weld prior to solidification as weld metal.
Non-Destructive Testing
 -  NDT involves the testing of welds without destroying the welds or parts. See Weld Quality Assurance
Nozzle
 -  A device which directs shielding media.
Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV)
 -  The difference of electrical potential between two terminals when no current is flowing in the welding circuit. Also known as no-load voltage, arc welding involves open circuit (when not welding) voltages from 20 volts to 100 volts. A welding machine that is turned on but not being used for welding at the moment will have an open-circuit voltage applied to the cables attached to the output terminals of the welding machine.
Overlap
 -  The protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe, face, or root of the weld.
Pandjiris Alpha 5-3 Fixed-Base Positioner
 - 
Pandjiris Beta 12.5-5 Fixed-Base Positioner
 - 
Pandjiris Mini Pro Fixed-Base Positioner
 - 
Pandjiris Mini Pro Weld Lathe
 - 
Pandjiris Missouri Mule (MM) Series
 -  Turning rolls manufactured by Pandjiris with a capacity range of 30,000 lbs to 180,000 lbs. or more. Designed for heavy-duty use. Often used in combination with a manipulator for applications that require both circumferential and longitudinal automated welding.
Pandjiris Model 15-4 MVRHTFB Positioner
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Pandjiris Model A Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 1.5" to 31 1/4", Weight Capacity: 3,000 lb., Allowable Overhang: 5"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Dia.: 1.5" to 27 5/8", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Dia.: 5.5" to 31 1/4", Gripper Jaws: (3) Serrated and Hardened Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Single Point Screw/Ball Lock Pin, Gripper Adj. Force (max. allowable): 1380 in-lb. (69 lb. on 20" handle)
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Quickset Ball Lock Pin, Mounting Holes: (3) for 5/8" Socket Head Cap Screws on 19-1/4" B.C.D., Weight: 250 lb.
Pandjiris Model B Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 1.5" to 44 3/8", Weight Capacity: 3,000 lb., Allowable Overhang: 5"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Dia.: 1.5" to 40.75", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Dia.: 5.5" to 44 3/8", Gripper Jaws: (3) Serrated and Hardened Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Single Point Screw/Ball Lock Pin, Gripper Adj. Force (max. allowable): 1380 in-lb. (69 lb. on 20" handle)
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Quickset Ball Lock Pin, Mounting Holes: (3) for 5/8" Socket Head Cap Screws on 19-1/4" B.C.D., Weight: 350 lb.
Pandjiris Model B60 Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 1.5" to 68", Weight Capacity: 3,000 lb., Allowable Overhang: 5"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Diameter: 1.5" to 63.5", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Diameter: 4.5" to 68", Gripper Jaws: (3) Serrated and Hardened Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Single Point Screw/Ball Lock Pin, Gripper Adj. Force (max. allowable): 1380 in-lb. (69 lb. on 20" handle)
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Quickset Ball Lock Pin, Mounting Holes: (3) for 5/8" Socket Head Cap Screws on 19-1/4" B.C.D., Weight: 383 lb.
Pandjiris Model C48 Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 3" to 48", Weight Capacity: 7,500 lb., Allowable Overhang: 5"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Diameter: 3" to 48", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Diameter: 7" to 52", Gripper Jaws: (3) Serrated and Hardened Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Single Point Screw/Ball Lock Pin, Gripper Adj. Force (max. allowable): 1800 in-lb. (60 lb. on 30" handle)
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Quickset Ball Lock Pin, Mounting Holes: (3) for 3/4" Socket Head Cap Screws on 28-7/8" B.C.D., Weight: 711 lb.
Pandjiris Model C60 Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 3" to 68", Weight Capacity: 7,500 lb., Allowable Overhang: 5"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Diameter: 3" to 65", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Diameter: 7" to 69", Gripper Jaws: (3) Serrated and Hardened Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Single Point Screw/Ball Lock Pin, Gripper Adj. Force (max. allowable): 1800 in-lb. (60 lb. on 30" handle)
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Quickset Ball Lock Pin, Mounting Holes: (3) for 3/4" Socket Head Cap Screws on 28-7/8" B.C.D., Weight: 770 lb.
Pandjiris Model J15 Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 1 1/2" to 15", Weight Capacity: 100 lb., Allowable Overhang: 1"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Dia.: 3/8" to 11 1/4", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Dia.: 4 1/4" to 15", Gripper Jaws: (3) Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Dual Lever/ Rotary Screw
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Rotary Screw, Mounting Holes: (3) for 5/16" - 18 x 1 1/4" Socket Head Cap Screws on 4-3/4" B.C.D., Weight: 20 lb.
Pandjiris Model TJ20 Quickset Gripper Chuck
 -  Clamping Range: 1" to 20", Weight Capacity: 1,000 lb., Allowable Overhang: 5"
Holding Capacity (outside clamping) Dia.: 1" to 16 1/2", Holding Capacity (inside clamping) Dia.: 6 1/4" to 20", Gripper Jaws: (3) Serrated and Hardened Self-Centering
Gripper Jaw Adjustment: Single Point Screw/Ball Lock Pin, Gripper Adj. Force (max. allowable): 1300 in-lb.
Jaws Attachment: Reversible, Quickset Ball Lock Pin, Mounting Holes: (3) for 1/2" Socket Head Cap Screws on 15-3/8" B.C.D., Weight: 140 lb.
Pandjiris Piper Series
 -  Turning rolls manufactured by Pandjiris with a capacity range of 1,500 lbs. to 10,000 lbs: Mini Pipers, Piper 3, and Super Piper. Designed for smaller capacity applications.
Pandjiris Tanker Series
 -  Turning rolls manufactured by Pandjiris with a capacity range of 8,000 to 15,000 lbs.: Tanker 80/40 and Tanker 150/75. Designed to handle a wide range of diameter sizes. No wheel adjustments for different diameters.
Paralleling
 -  Running multiple power generators to form a large capacity power source with redundancy. Often used for mission critical operations such as oilfield and emergency backup power. More about paralleling generators.
Partial joint penetration
 -  Joint penetration which is less than complete.
Pass
 -  A single progression of a welding or surfacing operation along a joint, weld deposit, or substrate. The result of a pass is a weld bead, layer, or spray deposit.
Peel test
 -  A destructive method of inspection which mechanically separates a lap joint by peeling.
Peening
 -  The mechanical working of metals using impact blows.
Plano lens (eye protection)
 -  A lens which does not incorporate correction.
Plasma
 -  A gas that has been heated to an at least partially ionized condition, enabling it to conduct an electric current.
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with a constricted arc between an electrode and the workpiece (transferred arc) or the electrode and the constricting nozzle (non transferred arc). Shielding is obtained from the hot, ionized gas issuing from the orifice which may be supplemented by an auxiliary source of shielding gas. Shielding gas may be an inert gas or a mixture of gases. Pressure may or may not be used, and filler metal may or may not be supplied.
Plug weld
 -  A circular weld made through a hole in one member of a lap or T-joint fusing that member to the other. The walls of the hole may or may not be parallel and the hole may be partially or completely filled with weld metal. (A fillet welded hole or a spot weld should not be construed as conforming to this definition.)
Polarity
 -  Electrode welding polarity affects the penetration level of the weld. With most arc welding processes, DC+ (direct current electrode positive) polarity produces more weld penetration, because more arc energy is focused into the base plate. Conversely, DC- (direct current electrode negative) polarity produces less weld penetration, because more arc energy is focused into the electrode and not into the base plate. This is the case with the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and SAW processes. The exception is the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, in which the effect of polarity on penetration is opposite. With GTAW, DC- polarity results in more weld penetration (with DC+ polarity generally not used).
Porosity
 -  Cavity type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification.
Positioned weld
 -  a weld made in a joint which has been so placed as to facilitate making the weld. See: welding positioners.
Postheating
 -  The application of heat to an assembly after a welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying or cutting operation.
Postweld heat treatment
 -  Any heat treatment subsequent to welding.
Pounds Per Square Inch (psi)
 -  A measurement equal to a mass or weight applied to one square inch of surface area.
Power Efficiency
 -  How well an electrical machine uses the incoming electrical power.
Power Factor Correction
 -  Normally used on single-phase, constant current power sources to reduce the amount of primary amperage demanded from the power company while welding.
Preheat temperature
 -  A specified temperature that the base metal must attain in the welding, brazing soldering, thermal spraying, or cutting area immediately before these operations are performed.
Preheating
 -  The application of heat to the base metal immediately before welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying, or cutting. See > Induction Heating Equipment Used for Preheating
Primary Power
 -  Often referred to as the input line voltage and amperage available to the welding machine from the shop's main power line. Often expressed in watts or kilowatts (kW), primary input power is AC and may be single-phase or three-phase.
Prime power generator rating
 -  Prime power ratings can be defined as having an “unlimited run time”, or essentially a generator that will be used as a primary power source and not just for standby or backup power.
Procedure
 -  The detailed elements (with prescribed values or ranges of values) of a process or method used to produce a specific result.
Procedure qualification
 -  The demonstration that welds made by a specific procedure can meet prescribed standards.
Progressive block sequence
 -  A block sequence during which successive blocks are completed progressively along the joint, either from one end to the other or from the center of the joint toward either end.
Protective atmosphere
 -  A gas envelope surrounding the part to be brazed, welded or thermal sprayed, with the gas composition controlled with respect to chemical composition, dew point, pressure, flow rate, etc. Example are inert gases, combusted fuel gases, hydrogen and vacuum.
Pulse
 -  A current of controlled duration through a welding circuit.
Pulse time
 -  The duration of a pulse.
Pulsed MIG (GMAW-P)
 -  A modified spray transfer process that produces no spatter, because the wire does not touch the weld puddle. Applications best suited for pulsed MIG are those currently using the short circuit transfer method for welding steel, 14 gauge (1.8 mm) and up. Flexibility and productivity—nearly all metals can be welded in all positions, Larger diameter electrode wires for higher deposition rates, Virtually no spatter, Welds thin to thick metalsArticle: Why Use Pulsed MIG?
Pulsed power welding
 -  Any arc welding method in which the power is cyclically programmed to pulse so that effective but short duration values of a parameter can be utilized. Such short duration values are significantly different from the average value of the parameter. Equivalent terms are pulsed voltage or pulsed current welding: see also pulsed spray welding.
Pulsed spray welding
 -  An arc welding method in which the current in pulsed to utilize the advantages of the spray mode of metal transfer at average currents equal to or less than the globular to spray transition current.
Pulsing
 -  Sequencing and controlling the amount of current, the frequency and the duration of the welding arc.
Push Angle
 -  The travel angle when the electrode is pointing in the direction of travel. Defines the position of welding guns, welding torches, high energy beams, welding rods, thermal cutting and thermal spraying torches, and thermal spraying guns in a forward direction.
Quality Assurance (QA)
 -  The practice of using a set of defined processes for systematic monitoring and evaluation to assure product quality. See Welding Quality Assurance & Quality Control Processes
Quality Control (QC)
 -  The process of confirming that a product meets an established set of specifications. See Welding Quality Assurance & Quality Control Processes
Rated Load
 -  The amperage and voltage the power source is designed to produce for a given specific duty cycle period. For example, 300 amps, 32 load volts, at 60 percent duty cycle.
Reaction stress
 -  The residual stress which could not otherwise exist if the members or parts being welded were isolated as free bodies without connection to other parts of the structure.
Reactor (arc welding)
 -  A device used in arc welding circuits for the purpose of minimizing irregularities in the flow of welding current.
Red-D-Arc Classic 300D Diesel Engine Welder K1643-9SPL1
 -  Kubota V2403M / E3B-LCN-1 Tier 4i
Red-D-Arc D200K 2+6 Diesel Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Kubota
Red-D-Arc D300K 3+10 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Kubota D1105-B 120/240/1
Red-D-Arc D300K 3+3 AirPak Diesel Engine Welder/Compressor and Plasma Cutter Legacy
 -  Kubota diesel, Swan SVU-202 11cfm @ 90psi compressor, Miller Spectrum Plus plasma cutter
Red-D-Arc D300K 3+3 Diesel Engine Welder K1687-1
 -  code 10567 - Kubota V1902BG1-RDA-1 33HP
- codes 10956, 11214 - Kubota V1903, 26 HP
- codes 11488, 11549 - Kubota V2003-M-E3BG-RDA, 29.2 HP
Red-D-Arc D300K 3+3 SE Diesel Engine Welder K3265-1
 -  Kubota D1503M-E4BG-LCN1 Tier 4
Red-D-Arc D302K 3+10 Diesel Engine Welder 500498
 -  Kubota V1505-E2BG1 Tier 2 20.2 HP OM4424
DC CC/CV, DC Amperage Range: 20-410A, DC Voltage Range: 14-40V, Maximum OCV: 65, Rated CC Output: 300A at 32VDC 60% duty cycle, 400A at 23VDC 30% duty cycle
Auxiliary Power: 12,000 watts peak, 10,000 watts continuous 83/42 A, 120 GFCI/240 VAC, 60 Hz, Fuel Capacity: 11.5 gallons (43.5L), Weight: 1,200lb (544kg) Dimensions: H:32" (813mm) W:26" (660mm) L:56" (1422mm)
Red-D-Arc D302K 3+12 Diesel Engine Welder 500498001
 -  Kubota V1505-E2BG1 Tier 2 20.2 HP OM4424
DC CC/CV, DC Amperage Range: 20-410A, DC Voltage Range: 14-40V, Maximum OCV: 65, Rated CC Output: 300A at 32VDC 60% duty cycle, 400A at 23VDC 30% duty cycle
Auxiliary Power: 12,000 watts peak, 10,000 watts continuous 83/42 A, 120 GFCI/240 VAC, 60 Hz, Fuel Capacity: 11.5 gallons (43.5L), Weight: 1,200lb (544kg) Dimensions: H:32" (813mm) W:26" (660mm) L:56" (1422mm)
Red-D-Arc D325K 3+12 Diesel Engine Welder 907755006
 -  DC CC/CV
Red-D-Arc D400K 4+3 Diesel Engine Welder K1687-1 International
 -  code 10567 - Kubota V1902BG1-RDA-1 33HP
- codes 10956, 11214 - Kubota V1903, 26 HP
- codes 11488, 11549 - Kubota V2003-M-E3BG-RDA, 29.2 HP
Red-D-Arc D402K 4+12 CC/CV CE Diesel Engine Welder 500498002
 - 
Red-D-Arc D402K 4+12 CC/CV CE Diesel Engine Welder 500498021
 - 
Red-D-Arc D500K 5+3 Diesel Engine Welder K1689-1 code 10569 Legacy
 -  Kubota F2803BG1-RDA-1 5 cylinder, 41 HP @ 1800 RPM 400A @ 40V, 98V max. OCV
Red-D-Arc D502DX 5+4 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder 907185
 - 
Red-D-Arc D502DX 5+4 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder 9071850011325
 - 
Red-D-Arc D502DX 5+4 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder 9071850011377
 -  Deutz
Red-D-Arc D502K 5+4 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder 500488
 - 
Red-D-Arc D503K 5+3 HO Diesel Engine Welder K1689-1 code 10748 Legacy
 -  Kubota V3300EGB-RDA-1-S1 4 cylinder, 49.5 HP 1800 RPM 400A 40V @ 100% duty cycle, 98V max OCV 3 kW 120VAC auxiliary power
Red-D-Arc D503K 5+3GM GougeMaster Diesel Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Kubota V3300EBG 35 cfm air compressor
Red-D-Arc D550K HO CC/CV Diesel Welder 500488021
 - 
Red-D-Arc D550K HO CC/CV Diesel Welder 500552
 - 
Red-D-Arc D624K HO CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder Legacy 907713
 - 
Red-D-Arc DX200K 2+4 Diesel Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Kubota OC95-E 9.5 HP 1 cylinder, electric start
Red-D-Arc DX300 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Kubota D722 120/240/1
Red-D-Arc DX350 Diesel Engine Welder K3587-1
 -  Kubota V1505, 4 cylinder, naturally aspirated, 22 HP @ 1800 RPM, Tier 4 Final 350A 28V @ 100% duty cycle, 60 max OCV @ 1,800 RPM, 11.5 kW 120/240VAC peak, 12.5 kW 240V/3 Phase peak auxiliary power
Chopper Technology, continuous range arc force, dedicated pipe mode, arc gouge mode, VRD™ in stick mode, stainless steel roof and case sides
Red-D-Arc DX450 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder K2712-1
 -  codes 11561, 11788 Kubota V2403M Tier 4i
Red-D-Arc DX450 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder K3211-1
 -  code 11908 Kubota V2403M Tier 4i
Red-D-Arc DX450 CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder K3211-3
 -  code 12245 Kubota V2403M CA/INTL Tier 4i
Red-D-Arc E300 DC CC Electric Welder K1688-1 Legacy
 -  250A DC @ 30V, 30% duty cycle, 40-250A current range, 15A @ 115VAC, 230/460/575/1/60, IM675, code 10638 Red-D-Arc FX360XL CC/CV Multiprocess Welder K4275-1
Red-D-Arc FX360XL CC/CV Multiprocess Welder K4275-1
 -  CrossLinc, 380/460/575/3/50/60
Red-D-Arc FX650XL CC/CV Multiprocess Welder K3437-1
 -  CrossLinc, 380/460/575/3/50/60
Red-D-Arc G200B 2+5 DC CC Gas Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Briggs & Stratton Vanguard 303400 15HP 120/240/1
Red-D-Arc GX160 2+4 DC CC Gas Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Honda GXV270, 8.5HP 3,600rpm 4kW 120/240/1
Red-D-Arc GX200 2+4 DC CC Gas Engine Electric Start Welder
 -  Honda GX390 13HP 4kW 120/240/1 serial numbers after 11627
Red-D-Arc GX200 2+4 DC CC Gas Engine Pull Start Welder
 -  Honda GX390 13HP 4kW 120/240/1 serial numbers after 11627
Red-D-Arc GX200 2+4 DC CC Gas Engine Welder Electric Start Legacy
 -  Honda GX340 11HP 4kW 120/240/1, serial numbers before 11628
Red-D-Arc GX200 2+4 DC CC Gas Engine Welder Pull Start Legacy
 -  Honda GX340 11HP 4kW 120/240/1, serial numbers before 11628
Red-D-Arc GX270 DC CC/CV Gas Engine Welder Legacy
 -  Honda GX620 20HP, 10kW 120/240/1
Red-D-Arc GX271 DC CC/CV Gas Engine Welder K1632-1 Legacy
 -  Honda GX620 20HP 8kW 120/240/1 code 10527 IM603
Red-D-Arc GX271LPG DC CC/CV LPG Engine Welder K1680-1 Legacy
 -  Kohler Command CH20S-LP 20HP 8kW 120/240/1 code 10579 IM635
Red-D-Arc GX300 DC CC/CV Gas Engine Welder K2284-2
 -  Kohler CH22 22HP, 10kW/120/240V
Red-D-Arc GX330XL DC CC/CV Gas Engine Welder K4783-1
 -  Kohler CH740 25HP, 10kW/120/240V
Red-D-Arc Lincwelder 225 DC Propane Engine Welder K1192-LPG Legacy
 -  225ADC, 25V @ 30% duty cycle, 3kW 115VAC, Onan Super CCK, 2 cylinder, 15.7 HP @ 3,000 RPM
Red-D-Arc LN25 Portable Wire Feeder K449-2 Legacy
 -  codes 10731, 11146 IM677-A Feb 2005
Red-D-Arc LN25X PRO-Extreme Portable Wire Feeder K4326-1
 -  codes 12504, 12626 CrossLinc remote control, IM10297-A Sept 2016
Red-D-Arc LN25X PRO-Extreme Portable Wire Feeder K4326-2
 -  code 12873 CrossLinc remote control, TVT True Voltage Technology, IM10533-A May 2019
Red-D-Arc Mariner 5+3 Offshore Diesel Engine Welder
 -  Kubota F2803
Red-D-Arc Overview Video
 -  https://drive.google.com/open?id=1guDVoT-FJffTZ0Cv-XyhWx_LS_XOTS7d
Red-D-Arc Pak
 -  A rugged tubular steel frame enclosure designed to accommodate multiple power supplies for multi-operator welding systems. Red-D-Arc’s modular Pak frames are available in 4Pak, 6Pak and 8Pak configurations.
Red-D-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-14RDA
 -  Perkins 1104A-44 Non-EPA
Red-D-Arc SAE400 Diesel Engine Welder K1278-9RDA
 -  Perkins 1104A-44/RR70595 Non-EPA, no remote
Red-D-Arc TIG AC/DC CC/CV Diesel Engine Welder 500552
 - 
Red-D-Arc WeldAir 225 Air-Powered Welder Legacy
 -  225A DC, 225A @ 30% duty cycle, Chicago Pneumatic 300 CFM, 90 psi, vane-type air motor with internal governor, 2,600 RPM full load, 3,000 RPM idle
Red-D-Arc ZR10 AC/DC CC/CV Gas Engine Welder K1786-2 Legacy
 -  Honda GX620 20HP, 9kW/120/240V/1/460V/3
Red-D-Arc ZR8 AC/DC CC/CV Gas Engine Welder K1786-4 Legacy
 -  Kohler CH20S 20HP, 8kW/120/240V
Reinforcement of weld
 -  Weld metal in excess of the quantity required to fill a joint.
Residual stress
 -  Stress remaining in a structure or member as a result of thermal or mechanical treatment or both. Stress arises in fusion welding primarily because the melted material contracts on cooling from the solidus to room temperature.
Resistance Spot Welding (RSW)
 -  A process in which two pieces of metal are joined by passing current between electrodes positioned on opposite sides of the pieces to be welded. There is no arc with this process. For more information on Resistance Spot Welding, please see Resistance Spot Welding Tech Tips.
Reverse polarity
 -  The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads with the work as the negative pole and the electrode as the positive pole of the welding arc. A synonym for direct current electrode positive.
RMS (Root Mean Square)
 -  The "effective" values of measured AC voltage or amperage. RMS equals 0.707 times the maximum or peak value.
Root crack
 -  A crack in the weld or heat-affected zone occurring at the root of a weld.
Root face
 -  That portion of the groove face adjacent to the root of the joint.
Root of joint
 -  That portion of a joint to be welded where the members approach closest to each other. In cross section the root of the joint may be either a point, a line or an area.
Root of weld
 -  The points, as shown in cross section, at which the back of the weld intersects the base metal surfaces.
Root opening
 -  The separation between the members to be joined at the root of the joint.
Root penetration
 -  The depth that a weld extends into the root of a joint measured on the centerline of the root cross section.
Root reinforcement
 -  Reinforcement of weld at the side other than that from which welding was done.
Root surface
 -  The exposed surface of a weld on the side other than that from which welding was done.
Scarf joint
 -  A form of butt joint.
Scratch Start TIG
 -  A common method of striking an arc in the TIG welding process which involves dragging the tungsten electrode across the surface of the metal. Not the cleanest method of starting a TIG weld. Stick welders can be converted to use for scratch TIG with the addition of an air cooled TIG torch and argon gas.
Seal weld
 -  Any weld designed primarily to provide a specific degree of tightness against leakage.
Seam weld
 -  A continuous weld made between or upon overlapping members, in which coalescence may start and occur on the faying surfaces, or may have proceeded from the surface of one member. The continuous weld may consist of a single weld bead or a series of overlapping spot welds. See seam welders
Seam welding
 -  The making of seam welds
Secondary circuit
 -  That portion of a welding machine which conducts the secondary current between the secondary terminals of the welding transformer and the electrodes, or electrode and work.
Selective block sequence
 -  A block sequence in which successive blocks are completed in a certain order selected to create a predetermined stress pattern.
Semi-automatic arc welding
 -  Arc welding with equipment which controls only the filler metal feed. The advance of the welding is manually controlled.
Semi-blind joint
 -  A joint in which one extremity of the joint is not visible.
Series submerged arc welding (SAW-S)
 -  A submerged arc welding process variation in which electric current is established between two (consumable) electrodes which meet just above the surface of the work. The work is not in the electrical circuit.
Shielded carbon arc welding (SCAW)
 -  A carbon arc welding process variation which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an electric arc between a carbon electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from the combustion of a solid material fed into the arc or from a blanket of flux on the work or both. Pressure may or may not be used and filler metal may or may not be used.
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode. SMAW is also referred to as MMA, MMAW (Manual Metal Arc Welding) and commonly as Stick Welding. Learn more about Stick Welding Applications.
Shielding gas
 -  Protective gas used to prevent atmospheric contamination.
Shindaiwa DGA12D Ultra Quiet Diesel Engine Generator
 -  12 kVA (9.6 kW) Kubota D1703, 4 cylinder, 240V 1 Phase/415V 3 Phase
Shindaiwa DGK150D/EPA3-Ultra Quiet kWiet Power Diesel Engine Generator
 -  Power - 150 kVA (120 kW) Isuzu 6HK1TC Direct Injection, Turbo, Intercooler, 6 cylinder, 119 kW @ 1,500 RPM, Tier 3, 59 dBA @ 7M NO LOAD, 60 dBA @ 7M FULL LOAD, 120/240/277V/1 Phase, 208/480V/3 Phase
Shindaiwa DGK150DU/01 kWiet Power Diesel Engine Generator
 -  Power - 150 kVA (120 kW) Isuzu 6HK1TC Direct Injection, Turbo, 6 cylinder, 190 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 3, 59 dBA @ 7M NO LOAD, 60 dBA @ 7M FULL LOAD, 120/240/277V/1 Phase, 208/480V/3 Phase
Shindaiwa DGK60D Diesel Engine Generator
 -  Three-Phase Power - 60 kVA (48 kW), Single-Phase Power - 36 kVA (36 kW) Kubota V3800DI-TI Turbo, 4 cylinder, 77 HP @ 1,800 RPM, EPA Phase 3 Compliance 61 dB(A) at 7m NO LOAD, 120/240V/1 Phase, 208/240/480V/3 Phase (simultaneous)
Shindaiwa DGM60MK/LU kWiet Power Diesel Engine Generator
 -  Three-Phase Power - 60 kVA (48 kW), Single-Phase Power - 36 kVA (36 kW) Kubota V3800DI-TI Turbo, 4 cylinder, 77 HP @ 1,800 RPM, EPA Phase 3 Compliance 61 dB(A) at 7m NO LOAD, 120/240V/1 Phase, 208/240/480V/3 Phase (simultaneous)
Shindaiwa kWiet Power Simul-Phase™ Technology
 -  Simul-Phase™ technology delivers dual-voltage, single- and three-phase power simultaneously, without the use of transformers. Supplies 120V and 240V power to lights, air conditioners, electric tools, and other similar devices at the same time you supply three-phase 240/480V power to motors that drive compressors, pumps, and similar equipment from one generator
Shindaiwa RDA150T3 Diesel Engine Generator
 -  Prime Power - 150 kVA (120 kW) Isuzu 6HK1TC Direct-Injection Turbo, 6 cylinder, 190 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 3, 59 dBA @ 7M NO LOAD, 60 dBA @ 7M FULL LOAD, 120/240/277V/1 Phase, 208/480V/3 Phase
Shindaiwa RDA60T3s Diesel Engine Generator
 -  Prime Power - 60 kVA (48 kW) Three-Phase, 36 kVA (36 kW) Single-Phase, Kubota V3800DI-TI Direct-Injection Turbo, 4 cylinder, 77 HP @ 1,800 RPM, Tier 3, 61 dB(A) at 7m NO LOAD, 120/240V/1 Phase, 208/240/480V/3 Phase (simultaneous)
Shindaiwa Ultra-Quiet Technology
 -  Shindaiwa's Utra-Quiet technology significantly reduces generator sound levels by means of air dams and insulated panels re-direct cooling air, doubling length-of-travel to minimize airflow noise without the need for power-robbing auxiliary fans. The enclosure features heavy-gauge foam. The result is lower sound-levels as well as increased unit rigidity. A specially tuned muffler and a longer exhaust pipe improve the balance of high- and low-noise frequencies. This results in very low noise levels, even under full load.
Short circuiting transfer (gas metal arc welding)
 -  A type of metal transfer in which melted material from a consumable electrode is deposited during repeated short circuits.
Shrinkage void
 -  A cavity-type discontinuity normally formed by shrinkage during solidification.
Sieve analysis
 -  A method of determining particle size distribution, usually expressed as the weight percentage retained upon each of a series of standard screens of decreasing mesh size.
Single-phase circuit
 -  An electrical circuit producing only one alternating cycle within a 360-degree time span.
Single-welded joint
 -  In arc and gas welding, any joint welded from one side only.
Skull
 -  The unmelted residue from a liquated filler metal.
Slag inclusion
 -  Nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal.
Slot weld
 -  A weld made in an elongated hole in one member of a lap or T-joint joining that member to that portion of the surface of the other member which is exposed through the hole. the hole may be open at one end and may be partially or completely filled with weld metal. (A fillet welded slot should not be construed as conforming to this definition).
Slugging
 -  The act of adding a separate piece or pieces of material in a joint before or during welding that results in a welded joint not complying with design, drawing, or specification requirements.
Smart Fuel Tank
 -  Tank's design minimizes chance of fuel backflow.
Solidus
 -  The highest temperature at which a metal or alloy is completely solid.
Spacer strip
 -  A metal strip or bar prepared for a groove weld, and inserted in the root of a joint to serve as a backing and to maintain root opening during welding. It can also bridge an exceptionally wide gap due to poor fitup.
Spatter
 -  In arc and gas welding, the metal particles expelled during welding and which do not form a part of the weld.
Spatter loss
 -  Metal lost due to spatter.
Spool
 -  A type of filler metal package consisting of a continuous length of electrode wound on a cylinder (called the barrel) which is flanged at both ends. The flange extends below the inside diameter of the barrel and contains a spindle hole.
Spool Gun
 -  Spool guns, consisting of a gun with a pistol grip and a 4-inch diameter wire spool mounted on the back end, provide mobility. Though most commonly used for welding aluminum because they solve the feeding problems encountered by push-only systems, some contractors and fabricators also use them for running a second type of wire (e.g., stainless steel or a smaller diameter solid wire). With 15- or 30-foot cable options, spool guns also provide mobility when working around large weldments. There are two classes of spool guns, ones that work with both CC or CV power sources and those that work with only CV power sources.
Spot weld
 -  A weld made between or upon overlapping members in which coalescence may start and occur on the faying surfaces or may proceed from the surface of one member. The weld cross section (plan view) is approximately circular.
Spot welding
 -  The making of spot welds.
Spray transfer (arc welding)
 -  A type of metal transfer in which molten filler metal is propelled axially across the arc in small droplets.
Square-groove weld
 -  A type of groove weld.
Staggered intermittent fillet welding
 -  Two lines of intermittent fillet welding on a joint in which the fillet weld increments is one line are staggered with respect to those in the other line.
Standby power generator rating
 -  Standby power generators are most often used in emergency situations, such as during a power outage. It is ideal for applications that have another reliable continuous power source like utility power.
Stick Welding SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)
 -  In this welding process, an electric arc is created between a coated consumable electrode and the work piece to be welded, causing the parent material to be fused together and the electrode to melt. The electrode is of a similar material to the parent material and by melting both together it provides the weld (or joint) with a reinforcing filler material. The electrode has a flux coating of either a basic, rutile or cellulose type, as the coating burns it protects the arc and weld pool from the surrounding atmosphere with a gaseous shroud. The slag which solidifies over the newly deposited weld also protects it from the atmosphere while cooling. Stick welding equipment
Stitch welding
 -  The use of intermittent welds to join two or more parts.
Straight polarity
 -  The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the work is the positive pole and the electrode is the negative pole of the welding arc. A synonym for direct current electrode negative.
Stranded electrode
 -  composite filler metal electrode consisting of stranded wires which may mechanically enclose materials to improve properties, stabilize the arc or provide shielding.
Stress corrosion cracking
 -  Failure of metals by cracking under combined action of corrosion and stress, residual or applied. In brazing, the term applies to the cracking of stressed base metal due to the presence of a liquid filler metal.
Stress relief cracking
 -  Intergranular cracking in the heat-affected zone of weld metal that occurs during the exposure of weldments to elevated temperatures during postweld heat treatment or high temperature service.
Stress relief heat treatment
 -  Uniform heating of a structure or a portion thereof to a sufficient temperature to relieve the major portion of the residual stresses, followed by uniform cooling.
Stringer bead
 -  A type of weld bead made without appreciable weaving motion.
Stud Welding
 -  A process for attaching a fastener, bolt or nut to a metal base. Fasteners attached during the stud welding process are usually threaded, unthreaded or tapped variety. Learn more about the uses of Stud Welding Machines.
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular, fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and sometimes from a supplementary welding rod. View Submerged Arc Welding
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
 -  A welding process that uses the heat produced by an electric arc between a bare metal electrode and the work. Shielding is supplied by a layer of granular, fusible flux material blanketing the arc. High deposition rates can enhance weld speed and production, Excellent mechanical properties for high-quality code and X-ray requirements, Improves welding operator comfort and appeal
Substrate
 -  Any base material to which a thermal sprayed coating or surfacing weld is applied.
Surface preparation
 -  The operations necessary to produce a desired or specified surface condition.
Surfacing
 -  The deposition of filler metal (material) on a base metal (substrate) to obtain desired properties or dimensions.
Surfacing weld
 -  A type of weld composed of one or more stringer or weave beads deposited on an unbroken surface to obtain desired properties or dimensions.
T-joint
 -  A joint between two members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of a T.
Tack weld
 -  A weld made to hold parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made.
Taps
 -  Connections to a transformer winding which are used to vary the transformer turns ratio, thereby controlling welding voltage and current.
Temporary weld
 -  A weld made to attach a piece or pieces to a weldment for temporary use in handling, shipping, or working on the weldment.
Tension test
 -  A destructive testing method where a tensile test is carried out on the welded specimen to the point of failure.See Weld Quality Assurance
Theoretical throat
 -  The distance from the beginning of the root of the joint perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.
Thermal stresses
 -  Stresses in metal resulting from non-uniform temperature distribution.
Thermocouple
 -  A thermoelectric device for measuring temperature which consists of two wires of two differing metals which are connected at two points, a voltage being developed between the two junctions in proportion to the temperature difference provides the capacity for measuring difference in temperature. See application using thermocouple.
Three-phase circuit
 -  An electrical circuit delivering three cycles within a 360-degree time span, and the cycles are 120 electrical degrees apart.
TIG - Pulsed TIG (TIG-P)
 -  A modified TIG process appropriate for welding thinner materials.
TIG Arc Starting Techniques
 -  Lift TIG - Developed as alternative to “scratch starts” or high-frequency (HF) arc starts, Lift TIG provides consistent, positive arc starts for welding with a DC output. There were two primary reasons to develop Lift TIG. First, HF current can interfere with electronics, including laptop computers and CNC machinery. Second, the scratch start technique, where the operator scratched the tip of the tungsten on a work-piece with a motion similar to that of striking a match, could contaminate the weld with tungsten particles. In a critical application, arc starts would need to be ground out and rewelded. Lift TIG completely eliminates issue associated with HF and, when executed properly, almost entirely eliminates the risk of tungsten inclusions. When people get frustrated with a Lift TIG unit, most of the time it’s because they are trying to use a scratch start technique. It’s critical that you just lightly touch, not scratch, the tungsten to the work piece, as well as hold it there for a second before lifting the TIG torch.
/High Frequency (HF) Capabilities - Note that Lift TIG is not acceptable for welding procedures that specify a non-contact arc starting method, as is often the case with pressure vessels and process piping. Here, you need a welding system that provides HF arc starts, which typically results in people asking, “How come unit X, Y or Z doesn’t have HF capabilities?” The simple answer is that ESAB and the other manufacturers do have units specifically designed to provide HF TIG arc starts. Going beyond that, it might help to understand that HF is a High-Voltage, Low Current, high RF frequency that is induced onto the welding lead. Incorporating HF components adds hundreds of dollars in cost to a power source, and not every customer wants to pay for functionality they don’t plan to use. That’s why equipment manufacturers offer Lift TIG-only power sources only and power sources with both Lift TIG and HF TIG arc starts. For more information visit www.esab.com
TIG Welding (GTAW)
 -  Also known as GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) this welding process welds using the heat of a non-consumable tungsten electrode. Filler metal can be used and argon inert gas or inert gas mixtures are used for shielding. Learn more about TIG Welding Applications
Toe crack
 -  A crack in the base metal occurring at the toe of a weld.
Toe of weld
 -  The junction between the face of a weld and the base metal.
Ton
 -  A ton is a unit of weight that is equal to 2000 pounds in the United States (short ton) and 2240 pounds in Britain (long ton or imperial ton or displacement ton).
Tonne
 -  A tonne is called a metric ton in the United States to help differentiate between metric and imperial. 1 tonne = 1,000 kilograms = 2,200 pounds
Torch
 -  A device used in the TIG (GTAW) process to control the position of the electrode, to transfer current to the arc and to direct the flow of the shielding gas.
Torch standoff distance
 -  The distance between a nozzle and a workpiece.
Touch start
 -  A procedure to initiate an arc for TIG (GTAW). The tungsten is touched against the work piece and then lifted, establishing an arc.
Travel angle (electrode)
 -  The angle that the electrode makes with a reference line perpendicular to the axis of the weld in the plane of the weld axis.
Travel angle (pipe)
 -  The angle that the electrode makes with a reference line extending from the center of the pipe through the puddle in the plane of the weld axis.
Travel angle of welding electrode
 -  The degree of the travel angle, whether a push or drag travel angle, affects how much of the arc force is directed down into the base plate. A travel angle of 0° to 10° (e.g.the electrode perpendicular or almost perpendicular to the plate) will result in more weld penetration. As the travel angle is increased, the level of weld penetration decreases.
Trigger reset
 -  Permits quick reset at gun rather than at machine.
Tungsten
 -  Rare metallic element with extremely high melting point (3410° Celsius). Used in manufacturing TIG electrodes.
Tungsten electrode
 -  A non-filler metal electrode used in arc welding or cutting, made principally of tungsten.
Underbead crack
 -  A crack in the heat-affected zone generally not extending to the surface of the base metal.
Undercut
 -  A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe or root of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal.
Underfill
 -  A depression on the face of the weld or root surface extending below the surface of the adjacent base metal.
Upslope time
 -  The time during which the welding current continuously increases from the beginning of welding current.
Vertical position
 -  The position of welding in which the axis of the weld is approximately vertical.
Vertical position (pipe welding)
 -  The position of a pipe joint in which welding is performed in the horizontal position and the pipe may or may not be rotated.
Volt-amp curve
 -  Graph that shows the output characteristics of a welding power source. Shows voltage and amperage capabilities of a specific machine.
Voltage
 -  The potential difference in charge between two points that acts as a force pushing electrons through a conductor. Sometimes termed electromotive force (EMF).
Voltage regulator
 -  An automatic electrical control device for maintaining a constant voltage supply to the primary of a welding transformer.
Voltage sensing wire feeders
 -  Voltage sensing wire feeders (also referred to as across-the-arc wire feeders) operate on arc voltage, eliminating the need for a control cord between the power source and the wire feeder. A voltage sensing wire feeder can be paired with either a constant voltage (CV) or a constant current (CC) power source. These feeders typically have a CC/CV switch inside the case. With a voltage sensing wire feeder and CV power source, voltage is set at the power source while wire feed speed (amperage) is set at the feeder. This can present a headache when working remotely from the power source, such as up on scaffolding and when you need to adjust voltage. Also, because voltage varies directly with distance between the electrode and the work piece (arc length), the feeder attempts to regulate voltage variations (e.g., an unsteady hand) by controlling wire feed speed. This means your parameters can vary slightly. Many engineering firms, construction companies and building codes no longer allow flux cored welding (FCAW) with a CC power source. It does not provide adequate assurance that the weld is being made with the proper voltage because operators must hunt for a voltage because the voltage fluxuates on a volt/amp curve from the CC power source. Instead, experts recommend a CV power source for wire welding, especially for the nickel-alloy and other flux cored wires used for structural welds on buildings and bridges. These wires are very voltage sensitive and generally require the fine-tuning capabilities of a CV machine.
Wandering sequence
 -  A longitudinal sequence in which the weld bead increments are deposited at random.
Weave bead
 -  A type of weld bead made with transverse oscillation.
Weld
 -  A localized coalescence of metals or nonmetals produced either by heating the materials to suitable temperatures, with or without the application or pressure, or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler material.
Weld bead
 -  A weld deposit resulting from a pass.
Weld crack
 -  A crack in weld metal.
Weld gauge
 -  Welding gauges are inspection gauges used for checking alignment, checking dimensions before welding, verifying weld dimensions, and checking porosity of welds. Some gauges are multipurpose or single purpose.
Weld metal
 -  That portion of a weld which has been melted during welding.
Weld metal area
 -  The area of the weld metal as measured on the cross section of a weld.
Weld Transfer
 -  Method by which metal is transferred from the wire to the molten puddle.
Weldability
 -  The capacity of a material to be welded under the fabrication conditions imposed into a specific, suitably designed structure and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service.
Welder
 -  One who performs a manual or semiautomatic welding operation. (Sometimes erroneously used to denote as welding machine.)
Welder certification
 -  Certification in writing that a welder has produced welds meeting prescribed standards.
Welder performance qualification
 -  The demonstration of a welder’s ability to produce welds meeting prescribed standards.
Welder registration
 -  The act of registering a welder certification or a photostatic copy thereof.
Welding
 -  A materials joining process used in making welds.
Welding aluminum
 -  The process of joining 2 pieces of aluminum together, or of joining a piece of aluminum to another type of metal using an arc welder. The most common type of aluminum welding is TIG aluminum welding but it is also possible to MIG weld aluminum.
Welding current
 -  The current in the welding circuit during the making of a weld.
Welding cycle
 -  The complete series of events involved in the making of weld.
Welding electrode classifications
 -  The American Welding Society (AWS) welding electrode numbering system provides detailed information on stick electrodes including suitable applications and how the electrode should be used to maximize performance. The prefix "E" designates an arc welding electrode. The first two digits of a 4-digit number and the first three digits of 5-digit number indicate minimum tensile strength. For example, E6010 is a 60,000 psi tensile strength electrode while E10018 designates a 100,000 psi tensile strength electrode. The next to last digit indicates position. The "1" designates an all position electrode, "2" is for flat and horizontal positions only; while "4" indicates an electrode that can be used for flat, horizontal, vertical down and overhead. The last 2 digits taken together indicate the type of coating and the correct polarity or current to use.
More information: Welding Electrode Classifications
Welding generator
 -  A generator used for supplying current for welding.
Welding head
 -  The part of a welding machine or automatic welding equipment in which a welding gun or torch is incorporated.
Welding leads
 -  The work lead and electrode lead of an arc welding circuit.
Welding machine
 -  Equipment used to perform the welding operation. For example, spot welding machine, arc welding machine, seam welding machine, etc.
Welding operator
 -  One who operates machine or automatic welding equipment.
Welding procedure
 -  The detailed methods and practices including all joint welding procedures involved in the production of a weldment.
Welding process
 -  A materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable temperatures, with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler metal.
Welding rectifier
 -  A device in a welding machine for converting alternating current to direct current.
Welding rod
 -  A form of filler metal used for welding or brazing which does not conduct the electrical current.
Welding sequence
 -  The order of making the welds in a weldment.
Welding technique
 -  The details of a welding procedure which are controlled by the welder or welding operator.
Weldment
 -  An assembly whose component parts are joined by welding.
Wet-stacking on diesel engines
 -  Unburned fuel and engine oil collecting in the exhaust stack of a diesel engine, characterized by the exhaust stack being coated with a black, sticky, oily substance. The condition is caused by the engine being run at too light of a load for extended periods of time. Caught early, this does not cause permanent damage and can be alleviated if additional load is applied. If ignored, permanent damage can occur to the cylinder walls and piston rings. Improved emission standards and higher quality fuel make engines less prone to wet-stacking in recent years.
Wetting
 -  The bonding or spreading of a liquid filler metal or flux on a solid base metal.
Wire feed speed
 -  The rate of speed in mm/s* or in./min at which a filler metal is consumed in arc welding. *Note: In Canada this is expressed in mm/min.
Wire straightener
 -  A device used for controlling the cast of coiled wire to enable it to be easily fed in to the gun.
Work angle
 -  The angle that the electrode makes with the referenced plane or surface of the base metal in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the weld.
Work connection
 -  The connection of the work lead to the work.
Work lead
 -  The electric conductor between the source of arc welding current and the work.
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